Psychology 220 Week 10 Notes
Psychology 220 Week 10 Notes Psych 220
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Notetaker on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 220 at University of New Mexico taught by Cheryl Bryan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
Psychology 220- Developmental Psychology Tues/Thurs 9:30-10:45am Week #10 3/29 -Begins the section on middle childhood- Chapter 11: The School Years: Biosocial Development Overview Healthy growth and activity Health problems in middle childhood Brain development Developmental psychopathology Special Education Middle Childhood The period between early childhood and early adolescence Roughly between ages 6/7 and 11 Size and Shape Rate of growth slows o Gaining 5-7 pounds a year and 2 inches in height as opposed to doubling in weight during infancy Skills grow steadily Better control of motor skills o Fine and gross Physical Activities Benefits and concerns of sports for younger children: Concerns 1. Makes them too competitive 2. They could get seriously injured -Concerns include too much competition at a young age, increased stress, critical parents, risk of physical injury Benefits 1. Learning to work with others 2. Hand-eye coordination / general better health 3. Discipline, respect -Benefits of sports programs include exercise, fun, teamwork, and sportsmanship **Time for physical education at school has decreased significantly especially in the United States, as well as safe neighborhood places to play. Health Problems th Childhood overweight- BMI above the 85 percentile Childhood obesity- BMI above the 95 percentile IN 2012 18% OF CHILDREN AGES 6-11 WERE OBESE Asthma- chronic inflammatory disorder of the respiratory system that narrows airways from the nose and mouth to the lungs Symptoms include: wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing IN 2013 14% OF CHILDREN AGE 5-7 HAVE BEEN DIAGNOSED WITH ASTHMA Brain Development Advances include: Myelination Self-control o Lateralization o Corpus callosum Reaction time o The time it takes to respond to a stimulus, either physically or cognitively Example: dodging a ball or answering a trivia question Selective attention o The ability to concentrate on a stimuli while ignoring others; concentrating on “what's important” Automatization o A process in which repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions makes the sequence routine, so that it no longer requires conscious thought o A combination of maturation and experience Measuring the Mind IQ IQ tests can help detect learning disabilities, giftedness, and other special needs IQ scores predict later school achievement and to some degree, career attainment in adulthood. Flynn Effect- the rise in average IQ scores that has occurred over the decades in many nations Aptitude Tests The potential to master a specific skill or to learn a certain body of knowledge Reaction time, selective attention, and automatization are the foundation Achievement Tests A measure of mastery or proficiency in reading, mathematics, writing, science, or another subject Criticisms of Testing: -Doubting that any single test can measure the complexities of a human’s brain Multiple intelligence: the idea that human intelligence is composed of a varied set of abilities rather than a single, all-encompassing one Developmental Psychopathology Study and prediction of maladaptive behaviors and processes across time Maladaptive: 4 PRINCIPLES 1. Abnormality is normal –Most children act oddly; children with disorders typically do not 2. Disability changes year by year -Comorbid: the presence of two or more unrelated disease conditions at the same time in the same person 3. Life may be better or worse in adulthood -Certain disabilities produce productive adults while some conditions are more disabling in adulthood 4. Diagnosis and treatment reflect the social context -Interaction with their surroundings can modify, worsen, or even create psychopathology Externalizing disorders: -Acting out, behavior excess -Insufficient control *External are more easily noticeable than internal Internalizing disorders: -Behavior deficits, withdrawal -Anxiety, shyness, depression Multifinality: a basic principle of developmental psychopathology that holds that one cause can have many final manifestations Equifinality: a basic principle of developmental psychopathology that holds that one symptom can have many causes Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) -A conditions characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or by hyperactive or impulsive behaviors -Interferes with a person’s functioning or development Issues involving ADHD: Misdiagnosis –if ADHD is diagnosed when it is a different problem, treatment might make things worse instead of better. Drug abuse –children on drugs for ADHD may become addicted easier than if alternative treatments are used Normal behavior considered pathological –could change the self- concept of the child to think they are abnormal Specific Learning Disorders -A marked deficit in a particular area of learning that is not caused by an apparent physical disability, by an intellectual disability, or by an unusually stressful home and environment Dyslexia: unusual difficulty with reading, thought to be the result of some neurological underdevelopment. -Dyslexia is the most common learning disorder Dyscalculia: unusual difficulty with math, probably originating from a distinct part of the brain. Dysgraphia: unusual difficulty with spelling and writing Autism Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): a developmental disorder marked by difficulty with social communication and interaction – including difficulty seeing things from another person’s point of view –and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. 3 Core sets of symptoms: Impaired reciprocal social interaction o Seeing things from another person’s perspective Delayed language o Of social interaction/communication, not vocabulary Aberrant activities o Rigid routines, motor stereotypies (excessive repetition), restricted interests Autism can be diagnosed as early as 1 year typically diagnosed around 3 years old Signs: -First clear signs of autism in failures of joint attention: Problem initiating joint attention, responding to it, and producing emotional expression Will show imperatives but not declaratives Social referencing is impaired -Autistic kids do establish attachments, and seek comfort/reunion Socially responsive to adults who initiate interaction o BUT: autistic kids are passive and depend on the caregiver to initiate interaction -Delayed in language Particularly aspects that deal with social, communicative function of language DO acquire vocabulary and grammar in a normative way -Succeed at conservation and seriation tasks normatively BUT: impaired on appearance/reality tasks and false belief task Neurodiversity: the idea that people have diverse brain structures, with each person having neurological strengths and weaknesses that should be appreciated, in much the same way diverse cultures and ethnicities are welcomed. A person who is adept at numbers and systems but inept in social skills and metaphors might be recognized as having unusual gifts, rather than pitied for having an autism spectrum disorder Special Education Least restrictive environment (LRE): a legal requirement that children with special needs be assigned to the most general educational context in which they can be expected to learn. -Children are not segregated unless it is not possible to remediate problems within a regular classroom Response to Intervention (RTI): an educational strategy intended to help children who demonstrate below-average achievement in early grades, using special intervention. -Practice and individualized teaching for those who do not master the skills along with the other students in the regular classroom Individual Education Plan (IEP): a document that specifies educational goals and plans for a child with special needs -“Design learning pathways for each individual sufferer” Gifted and Talented Accelerated learning: educating gifted children alongside other children of the same mental, not chronological, age. NOTE: There are no notes for 3/31. We watched an in-class film entitled Life’s Lessons
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