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Ling 301 Week 8 Notes - Pragmatics

by: Johanna Murphy

Ling 301 Week 8 Notes - Pragmatics Ling 301

Johanna Murphy
GPA 3.96
Intro to Linguistic Analysis
Melissa Baese-Berk

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Notes on Pragmatics, Dialects, Accents, Language and Identity
Intro to Linguistic Analysis
Melissa Baese-Berk
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johanna Murphy on Saturday November 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Ling 301 at University of Oregon taught by Melissa Baese-Berk in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro to Linguistic Analysis in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Oregon.

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Date Created: 11/21/15
Week 8 Lecture Notes Pragmatics Information Structure 0 Relative emphasis and deemphasis of certain information 0 Passive language tends to deemphasize actions 0 foregrounding emphasis O backgrounding deemphasis 0 A property of language in specific contexts DefiniteIndefinite Expressions 0 Q Who s at the door 0 A It s a neighbor vs It s the neighbor O Definite form the when the person being addressed knows who the person is O Indefinite form a when the addressee doesn t know who the person is Given vs New Information 0 Given Information information currently in the forefront of the addressee s mind 0 Often referred to with definite articles 0 New Information information just being introduced into the discourse 0 Typically stressed or elaborated O Often referred to with indefinite articles Pragmatics and Conversation 0 Pragmatics is language in use 0 Semantics addresses meaning outside of context 0 Speech acts the things we do with speech that have consequence in the real world 0 We understand context because we recognize speech situations 0 A speech event is a particular interaction an instantiation of a speech situation 0 Any speech that happens in a given speech situation Speech Acts 0 Much action in the world is verbal not physical 0 Different types of speech acts 0 Assertion conveys information I Napoleon was short 0 Question elicits information I Where are you 0 Promise Commits speaker to an action I I ll do the dishes 0 Threat Commits speaker to an action the hearer doesn t want I I ll scream 0 Request Elicits action or info 39 Could you please open the window 0 Order demands action 39 Open the window now Performative Speech Acts 0 Special types of speech acts using performative verbs O Pronounce you man and wife 0 Declare war 0 Declare you innocent guilty 0 No real physical action the action is all in the words 0 Special felicity conditions conditions that must hold for a statement to be felicitous 0 Examples of infelicitous answers 0 Q What do you do for a living 0 A I have a job My favorite color is purple 0 Felicity conditions of Can you pass the salt 0 Speaker believes the salt hadn t been passed 0 Wants the salt to be passed 0 Believes hearer can do the action 0 Believes hearer might be willing to do the action 0 Performative speech acts have extra felicity conditions 0 When used infelicitously doesn t actually change world 0 I hereby pronounce you husband and wife is not felicitous if you don t have power to do so 0 Hereby Test if you can insert hereby it s probably performative O I hereby promise to take you to dinner doesn t work 0 John hereby threatened me doesn t work Sentence Type 0 Different from Speech Act Type 0 Declarative he is buying coffee 0 Interrogative is he buying coffee 0 Can make a question using a declarative O I would like to know what you re doing here Pervasiveness of Speech Acts 0 Many newspaper articles report on speech acts 0 suspected of O acquitted Indirect Speech Acts 0 Setting it s cold the Window is open I m farther from Window than other person 0 Close the Window 0 Can you shut the Window indirect O Brr I m chilly indirect 0 Why speak indirectly 0 Politeness 0 Positive Politeness Those are nice shoes 0 Negative Politeness Not mentioning someone s wornout shoes Locution 0 Every speech act can be considered to have 3 primary facets O Locution actual linguistic utterance O Illocution speaker s intention 0 Perlocution actual effectoutcome of the utterance 0 People in most situations manage to understand utterancecs essentially as they were intended Implicature 0 Q Can you tell me the time A Well the mailman has come 0 Means it s past a certain time probably morning 0 The semantic meaning of the sentence is are you able to tell me the time 0 The pragmatic meaning is do you have the ability to tell me the time of the present as indicated on a standard watch Cooperative Principle 0 4 maxims Quantity Quality Relevance and Manner 0 Quantity make your contribution as informative as required for purpose of the exchange 0 Don t make you contribution more informative then necessary 0 Quality try to make contribution true 0 Do not say What you believe to be false 0 Do not say What you lack adequate evidence for O Irony and hyperbole are examples of outing the maxim of quality 0 Relation be relevant 0 Manner avoid ambiguity or obscurity of expression be brief and orderly Language Variation 0 Lots of variability in language and language use 0 Each person has own idiolect particular way of speaking 0 Differs systematically from other speakers 0 Groups of speakers that have notably different speech from other groups are speaking dialects 0 Everyone speaks at least one specific dialect of their native language Language vs Dialect 0 2 criteria 0 Mutual intelligibility can speakers of X understand speakers of Y I If so same language I If not different languages 0 Political or Social Boundaries I If X and Y are spoken in 2 different countries they are likely different languages 0 Swedish vs Norwegian O Mutually intelligible O Spoken in different countries 0 Different names for languages I Moroccan Arabic and Syrian Arabic 0 Not mutually intelligible 0 Different countries 0 Same name for language same writing system 0 Boundary areas between 2 countries often have languages that are very similar 0 Dialect continuumchange 0 German Dutch Flemish 0 Names for languages are complicated sometimes same name refers to many languages Chinese Register 0 A language variety associated with a particular situation or kind of use 0 Can vary from other registers in terms of words grammar pronunciation etc I J argons specialist vocabulary connected to specific registers legalese baseball medical speak Style 0 Describes formality of registers 0 Style shifting is moving between different styles automatically 0 Formal to informal exists on a continuum captures lots of langauges variation I Talkin vs talking 0 Sociolinguistic reality 6 9 0 Labov s Research lowerclass people in NYC less able to pronounce r Register Variation 0 Variation happens at all levels 0 Phonological O Lexical O Grammatical 0 Semantic Sociolinguistics 0 The idea that style individual variation and Withinspeaker variation as a function of formality 0 Is part of early variationist sociolinguistics Stvle Language and Identitv 0 Audience Design and Communication Accomodation Theory 0 Individual variation is a function of the audience 0 Speaker Design 0 Individual variation exists because we are constantly negotiatingrecreatingrepresenting our identities 0 Audience and formality matters but are not the root source for individual variation Regional Variation 0 Dialect geography is among the oldest areas of linguistic inquiry 0 Maps linguistic variation in space Dialect Manning 0 Maps based mostly on lexical items 0 Can be made from sets of any kind of linguistic features 0 Boundaries are delimited by identifying the borders of the items distribution 0 Isogloss a line that separates two distributions 0 Bundle of isoglosses a number of isoglosses occurring in the same place Dialects 0 Dialects vary at all levels of structure 0 Phonetics phonology lexical items morphology syntax etc 0 Same feature can be seen as a bad thing in one place and a sign of prestige in another Accents 0 Accents are one of the most noticeable features of someone s language 0 Many people believe they don t have an accent Morphological Variation 0 Some dialects allow for ish to be attached to nouns in addition to adjectives O Catish businessish 0 Hisself theirselves instead of himself themselves 0 Svntactic Variation 0 Double modals Might could 0 the cat wants petted instead of wants to be petted AAVE 0 African American Vernacular English 0 Diphthongs turn to monophthongs at ends of words or before voiced consonants 0 Side becomes sad 0 Time becomes tam Final consonant cluster reduction 0 Cold eggs becomes col eggs Past tense cluster reduce O Messed up becomes mess up 0 Past tense still occurs when clusters are not formed Habitual be 0 The coffee always be cold 0 Absence of 3rd singular s 0 He need to get a book from the shelf Multiple negation I don t have no lunch Where Did AAVE Come From 0 Dialectal View 0 Dialect of English with very little outside in uence 0 Creolist View 0 Highly in uenced 0 Unified View 0 Includes lots of features from African languages and English dialects Bidialectal 0 Individuals who can shift from one dialect to another 0 Most can shift style depending on circumstances 0 There are many people who can switch easily between Standard English and AAVE Language and IdentitV 0 Use language to signal features of our identity 0 Raceethnicitygendersocial class 0 Authenticity is determined by Whether others accept aspects of our identity as legitimate 0 Attacks on our language or language use are seen as attacks on personality 0 Attempts to legislate language use often fail 0 People control language and don t believe that other people get to tell us how to speak


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