Week 8-History 1A
Week 8-History 1A History 1A
Popular in Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Doberneck on Saturday November 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 1A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Phillips in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843 in History at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 11/21/15
All bills passed in the plebeian assembly had full force of law if they were also ratified by the senate The law that banned mixed marriages between patricians and plebeians was rescinded, so now you can't intermarry and the h iodine of this marriage take the social status of the father New office of the curule aediles, 367 Only eligible for patricians Military tribune consuls Plebeians we're now allowed to be consuls No more than 300 acres of land per person Military consulship was abolished, only consuls but both classes could be in it lex Genucia (Genucian law), 342: one consul per year must be plebeian New consular aristocracy that has people from high up families that had past consuls They try to keep the consulship within their group and want to make sure the current consuls come from s family of consuls lex Publilia (Publilian law), 339: Senate must approve bills appearing before assemblies in advance of vote lex Poetelia (Poetelian law), 326/313: nexum abolished It was common practice to enslave a defaulting debtor Debt bondage=nexus Now no debtor may be enslaved for not paying Ap. Claudius Caecus, censor 312 Wanted to increase the political voice of the rural poor by distributing them among the tribes Public works o Build roles first aqueduct Cn. Flavius, aedile 304 Published a handbook of legal info to help citizens understand and apply the laws that were now posted lex Ogulnia (Ogulnian law), 300: pontiffs and augurs o Exclusively patrician priesthood until this law o It was then changed that the pontiffs be 8 members and 9 for augurs o Majority of members had to be plebeian lex Maenia (Maenian law), 290: Senate must ratify results of elections in advance of vote lex Hortensia (Hortensian law), 287: Before, if the senate didn't ratify an assembly law then it only was enforced on plebeians plebiscitabinding on all Roman citizens without ratification by Senate. Achieved political equality with the senate End of the Struggle of the Orders. Punic Wars First (264241) Second (218201) Third (149146) Carthage: Founded by colonists from Phoenicia in 814 Commercial and military power in the western Mediterranean Great trading people and explorers Causes o Proximate/intermediate cause o Ultimate/deeper causes for Rome Romans were afraid of Carthage They were a powerful neighbor and their spheres on influence overlapped Roman aristocrats wanted military glory to enhance their prestige and help their political traditions For the entire history of tome, the best way to achieve political prominence was to be successful in war o Carthage reasons Must protect their reputation as being a very powerful people Also wanted to protect their material interests Carthage had a pretty good navy, Rome did not o 261, Romans realized that they needed to build up a navy if they wanted to be successful o They built hundreds of ships in only 2 months o Created a plank that they could drop on the enemy's ship and connect the two, forcing a naval battle to become a land battle on ships invasion of Africa and naval disasters o In 253, the manjirty of the Roman navy is lost due to storms o The commander of the navy was in charge of interpreting the omens He gave the sacred chickens their food, they wouldn't eat He took this bad omen as just the chickens being dumb and threw them overboard The Romans lost showdown in Sicily o Rome and Carthage fight over Sicily. Rome win Results 241 o Carthage agrees to keep all their ships out of Italians waters o Had to pay war reparations to Rome o Surrendered Sicily and other islands o By 238, Rome additional,h seized Corsica and asked for more money o Rome is now the most powerful empire in this area o Gave them their first overseas province, which then influenced their politics structure for the rest. Of their prominence Carthaginian revival Carthage starts to rebuild itself Rome gets worried at how quickly they are doing this and their expansion of power Ebro treaty, 226 o Treaty saying that no Carthage military can go past the Ebro river in Spain Roman expansion in Cisalpine Gaul and Illyria Second Punic War, 218201 Immediate cause o The siege of a Spanish city, ally of Rome, by the Carthage Desperate causes o Carthaginian anger and bitterness due to how they were defeated and had their colonies taken away from them o The Carthusian barca family, one of the most prominent families, hated Rome o For Rome, they needed to protect their ally o High families want political power from being successful in war o Rome has to protect its trade interests Hannibal Barca strategies of belligerents Hannibal’s invasion of Italy o Had to cross the Appalachian maintains in order to get into italu o Caused many of his men and war elephants to die o They succeed in the initial stages of their invasion Romans invade Spain's and North Africa Q. Fabius Maximus (Cunctator) Chosen as the dictator for the time if the war New tactic of delaying because the pitch battles hadn't been working battle of Cannae, 216 Romans were getting impatient Deceive to try a pitch battle 80,000 Romans die, on,y 15,000 carthanians Clues many allies to rebel against Rome and for them to go back to the strategy of delaying siege of Syracuse Chief city of Sicily 215, Rome successfully conquers the city war in Spain: P. Cornelius Scipio (Africanus) Destined to be the next hero of the war In 209 he takes new Carthage and by 297 forces the carthanians to run away Hannibal now is stuck in Italy and own has no way to get reinforcements Italy and Africa, 207202 battle of Zama, 202 terms of peace, 201 Even harsher than the first war Carthage must surrender all territory outside of Africa Can't wage war without asking the Romans first Navy can only be 10 sips, making their naval and commercial owner dwindle 3 Punic War 149146 (cont.) Massinissa Wealthy aristocratic man in Rome Knew that Carthage wasn't able to wage war without times consent Took advantage of this by conquering parts of Carthage when they weren't able to fight back Ended up with about 80% of Carthage as Rome turned a blind eye M. Porcius Cato (the Elder) Always thought that Carthage would be a threat to the Roman Empire Ended every speech with Carthago delenda est, “Carthage must be destroyed” It was true that Carthage was insurgent o Carthage pays off their war debt and rise in trade prominence Causes of war By 150, the Carthaginians are tire of Massinissa taking all their land so they go to war against him This is against the treaty so it gives Rome a reason to go after them Destruction of Carthage, 146 The entire population was sold into slavery Carthage was made a Roman colony Rome and Hellenistic Greece conquest of Epirus, 167 Macedonia becomes Roman province, 148 sack of Corinth, 146 influx of Greeks to Italy effects of Greece on Roman culture (literature, art, philosophy) o Polybius, a Greek captive, wrote about the history of Rome to explain to his fellow Greeks how the Romans became so powerful as to be the biggest empire of the time and defeat them o Greco Roman culture is the legacy of the Greeks and Romans to the west Latin version of the odyssey History of the first Punic war written in Greek (Greek wa the language of literature until Latin could be written and not just spoken) Modify philosophy and rhetoric to fit their needs o Stoicism Monarchy Importance of duty and responsibility o Cato the elder was worried that all the Greek influence would ruin Roman culture Romans still took a lot from the Greeks Introduction: economic problems in 2 century Italy decline of small farmers and rise of latifundia o Hannibal destroyed the countryside o Most soldiers were the lower class farmers so during the Punic wars when they were gone so long their crops suffered o Latifundia are the large agricultural estates owned by wealthy people o Small farmers aren't even needed to work the land that is taken by the rich because of the influx of slave labor as a result of Rome’s conquests complains of equites (equestrians) and provincials o Equites Functioned as Rome’s business class Resented their limited opportunities to rise into the consul and nobility class Don't like how much control the senate has other their business activities o Italian allies Thought that they had faced the same risks and dangers as the Romans in the wars where they helped them win but they didn't receive the financial benefits Wanted Roman citizenship status o Provincials Complained about corrupt governors Creation of a government extortion Corp to investigate claims of corruption Not effective because the jury were normally friends with those being tried and it wasn't a fair trial Roman Revolution, 13331 Ti. Gracchus, tribune 133 Motivated by the decline of the Italian small farmers and the lack of man power in the military o To serve in the military you had to be a citizen who owned land o Drop in eligible men to serve because of how many farmers had to sell their land and due to large numbers of casualties agrarian bill o Limited amount of land each person could legally own o The bill passed but the senate purposely underfunded the division of the government responsible for enforcing this o Tiberius wasn't happy about that and said that he would make them use another source of revenue to earn the money because his bill needed to be enforced o The senate now didn't like him and arranged for his assassination C. Gracchus, tribune 123122 revival of agrarian commission grain law o Grain has to be sold at a price affordable to lower class military law o No drafting boys under 17 o Senate must provide all food and clothing for soldiers Asian taxes farmed to equites (worth 400,000 sesterces or more) extortion courts transferred from Senate to equites senatus consultum ultimum, “final decree of the senate” o Gaius ran for the senate the third time and slot o Him and his supporters were killed and persecuted optimates vs. populares Optimistes (the best men) supported the traditional way of government Populares (of the people) supported the Gracchus was of government C. Marius legionary reforms o Solved the military soldier problem by ignoring the land possession qualification o Legions divided into conherts to increase flexibility of the legions o Made each soldier carry their own supplies and tools so that they would be more self sufficient o Increased effectiveness and solidarity of the legions consulships (107, 104100) Served 6 times, was the most favored political figure This changed when two of his supports were declared against the state and were killed Caused his popularity to drop Social War, 9188 War of the allies The allies joined together in a confederation and were a serious threat to Italy Response was to make gradual successions to the Italians until the revolt fizzled out Now most Italians were considered Roman citizens o Latin became prominent language o Under Roman law L. Cornelius Sulla 88 elected consul Assigned a military position in the east for the first muthridaric war First Mithridatic War, 8985 return to Italy; battle of Colline Gate, 82 o Took control of Rome reign of terror, 8279 o Kind to his supporters, merciless to his enemies o constitutional reforms In 82, Sulla was appointed dictator "to write the laws and arrange the public for an indefinite leopard of time" Transferred criminal juries back to the senate System of standing criminal courts with senatorial jurors Added 6 more extortion courts (treason, electoral fraud, homicide, public violence) Added more people to the senate, reduced the powers of the tribunes of the plebs most of his reforms didn't last after his resignation in 79, but the extortion courts did Pompey and Crassus Space revolt started by Spartacus o Lasted for 2 years from 7371 o Pompey takes credit for ending the war when it wa really Crassus Political rivalry They both end up winning the consulship and have to work together Constitutional reforms o Juries would be made up of three separate parts Marcus Cissero Verses was on trial for his misconduct in Sicily o Cissero goes and tries to fight verse o He runs away, Cissero is now the erasing political advocate of Rome Pompey and the Pirates, 67 Pirates pose a threat to the economic stability of ROme Pompey assigned to fight them He was given a huge navy and a lot of freedom for a period of 3 years Succeeded in destroying them in only 3 months Pompey in the east 66 Supreme command over all Roman forces in Asian minor in order to defeat mithradates Urbanization o Increased taxes paid to Rome Hellenizarion of these lrovinces Lucius Catalina Lost 2 consecutive consular elections, so he decided to seize power Cissero, a consul at the time, found out about this and made a series of speeches to the senate that exposed his plan Catalina was declared an enemy of the state and fled Catalina was killed in action, his supporters were taken to Rome and executed without trial as decreed by cissero o Cissero was declared a hero for saving the Roman state C. Iulius Caesar (Julius Caesar, 10044): early career Climbed the course of public offices quaestor 68; aedile 65 pontifex maximus, 63 o High priest of the Roman sate praetor 62; governor of Further Spain, 61 First Triumvirate, 60: Caesar, Pompey, Crassus Caesar consul, 59 o The senate declined to grant him a triumph despite his victories in Spain o Caesar is bitter about this rejection o Joined Pompey and Crassus in their triumvirate Three most influential political figures unite Pompey wanted ratification of his settlement in the east Crassus got tax breaks from his clients in the western corner Caesar was given the consul position and promised advancement afterward Cicero banished, 58 o Resisted the triumvirate because he say it says a threat to the republic o The triumvirate banished him from Rome Gallic Wars, 5851 Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War o Caesars account of the Gallic war conquest and Romanization of Gaul o Gail becomes the most romanized land outside of Italy itself impact on Caesar’s career o Displayed outstanding ability as a general o Secured support from his soldiers o Make a lot of connections and friends Luca conference, 56 o All three members of the triumvirate convene and renew their agreement for the next 5 years o Arrangements Pompey and Crassus will be consuls in 55 Crassus will then command Syria Pompey would be in charge of the Ukraine All 3 would cooperate to curve the influence of cissero and gangs Fragmentation of the Triumvirate Crassus in the East o KIA Carrhae 53 Crassus dies and the famous golden eagles we're lost His severed head was used as a stage prop In a play split between Caesar and Pompey 1. Pompey takes the initiative to get elected to the position of sole consul in order to try to restore order in Rome o He takes advantage of this power ad threatens Caesar, so Caesar can only regain his power through military strength Civil War, 4945 o Pompey has the senate drawdown one of those death warrants that's like the last worked of the senate or something o Caesar crosses the Rubicon:alea iacta est “the die is cast,” 49 Begins the civil war as Caesar and his army go into Italy Pompey was not prepared for war Many of his troops fled as Caesar came toward them Gave him a clear path to Rome which allowed Caesar to defeat Pompey in only two months battle of Pharsalus, 48 o Pompey had fled to Greece, Caesar followed Pompey fled to Egypt o Caesar in Egypt: Pompey was assassinated but Caesar still needed to fight against his supporters Cleopatra was installed as pharaoh by Caesar o Caesar in Pontus 47 veni, vidi, viciI came, I saw, I conquered" Defeated the political upheaval o Caesar in Africa: 46 Campaigns in Africa against rebellious people M. Porcius Cato (the Younger) Famously committed suidice Known as a martyr o battle of Munda, 45 End of the civil war Gave him a lot of political influence Caesar was still high priest because it's a lifelong thing Given sole military power in 48 dictatorship of Caesar, 4744 o dictator, 47; extended for 10 years, 46; extended for life, 44 o censorial powers and right of first speech in Senate, 46 o soleimperium and control of treasury, 45 o all future decisions ratified in advance, 44 reforms o Senate increased (600→900) and number of magistrates increased Appointed his friends and clients into these positions o grain dole recipients decreased 320,000 to 150,000 o building and public works programs Launching a building program in Rome Goal was to reduce unemployment and urban congestion o colonization, Romanization, and coinage Schools and library's to increase literacy Effects o integration of Rome in Italy o Italy in empire o Revived the economy, reduced unemployment, reduced number of landless citizens o calendar reform: Julian calendar Solar calendar based on the one used in Egypt 365 days, new year is January 1st Still in use, modified a little in 1500s The dictatorship of Caesar is clearly unconstitutional and goes against the republic o His reign would only end if he resigned or died o Senators of the old aristocracy wanted to return to the old republic Some truly believed that the republic was a form of government they needed to protect Others wanted the power for themselves o Plot against Caesar Included over 60 senators Headed by Brutus and Cassius We're going to kill him in the ides of March Caesar was said to be warned, but ignored the prophecies He entered the senate, sat down, the senators came and stabbed him C. Octavius = Octavian = Augustus Aftermath of Caesar’s assassination C. Octavius, Caesar’s heir M. Antonius ( Mark Antony ) Octavius raised an army to fight against mark Antony because they both wanted power OctaviusOctaviam Second Triumvirate, 43: Octavian, Antony, M. Aemilius Lepidus Given a 5 year reign deification of Caesar death of Cicero Philippi and the division of the empire, 42 Battle between the armies of Brutus and Cassius and the second triumvirate Critus and Cassius lost and killed themselves Sex. Pompeius and the pirates, 3836 Seized Sicily, cut off Rome and cut off the grain supply Open warfare occupied these years Pompeius eas defeated Octavian vs. Antony Fought for control of the entire empire Cleopatra, pharaoh of Egypt, was involved with Antony He bestowed her the title queen of kings, appointed her co ruler of the east with himself Octavian convinced Rome to go to war against Antony and cleopatra by making it seem like they were threats to the Roman Empire and republic Actium, 31 Battle between Antony and Octavian Antony lost, they fled to Egypt o Their military base had disappeared o Antony thought cleopatra had been killed, kiss himself o Cleopatra kills herself after Antony does to avoid being shamed by Rome Octavian becomes Augustus, 27: beginning of the Roman Empire Tries to resign his power, the senate refuses to accept this and extends his power for 10 years Official first citizen of Rome Announces the principals will be the first part of Roman government provincial administration o Divide the provinces into multiple parts:imperial, senatorial, o Imperial: Trouble parts were seen as likely to rebel, had a strong military presence o Senatorial: interior provinces, senate appoints governors Finance o Treasury traditionally controlled by the senate o Augustus possessed a personal estate from his inheritance from Julius Caesar Had to often use him money to bail out the Roman people Judiciary o Courts began to function as they had before o The imperial court was added that included Augustus and his legal advisors Court of appeals for cases throughout the empire Continually indeed in power Rise of power Consul from 2723 Power of tribune for live Power to convene the senate 22
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