Profili Forensic Chem 11/16, 11/18
Profili Forensic Chem 11/16, 11/18 FRSC 367
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayli Antos on Saturday November 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FRSC 367 at Towson University taught by Mark Profili in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Forensic Chemistry in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Towson University.
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Date Created: 11/21/15
Forensic Cbemistty Pto li Fall 2015 Soil And Glass Analysis Foremz39e Geology 9 9 Is the legal application of earth and soil science Includes the characterization of earthen materials that have been transferred between objects or locations and analyzing possible origins Foremz39e Geologist Tools 99999 Binocular microscopes Petrographic microscopes X ray diffraction Scanning electron microscopes Microchemical analysis Foremz39e Geology Histog 9 9 9 9 Soil 9 99 9 999 1887 1893 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle included scientif1c ideas and techniques for solving crimes in his Sherlock Holmes books Included was some information about soil and soil composition which before had never been used 1893 Hans Gross an Austrian criminal investigator wrote that there should be a study of dust dirt on shoes and spots on cloth and noted that dirt on a suspects shoes can tell more about where they ve been then questioning can get out of them 1904 George Popp a German forensic scientist presented the first case of earth materials used as evidence in a criminal case 1910 Edmond Locard forensic geologist established his principle of exchange Natural materials that cover the earth s surface and are able to support plant life The earth is 75 water 15 deserts ice mountains and 10 lab suitable for agriculture Formed by living matter dead and decaying animals plants and microorganisms inorganic materials rocks the climate parent materials relief run off etc and time Topsoil subsoil and parent material Composed of sand silt clay and or organic matter Macro nutrients include nitrogen phosphorus potassium calcium magnesium and sulfur Micro nutrients include manganese iron boron copper zinc molybdenum and chlorine Soil Comparisons 9 99 99 Can be used to link a crime victim and or suspects Physical properties that can be used are density magnetism particle size and minerology Chemical properties that can be used as pH and trace elements When taking samples from a crime scene do not steal the containers all the way It will cause moisture to accumulate and mold may grow Samples must be taken of all 3 layers of soil 0 Samples should be taken 10 20 feet in four directions from the crime scene to determine if the soil is consistent for a large area or is there are any inconsistencies 0 Find the particle size by sifting with screens with different size mesh 0 Measure density with density gradient tubes Probdn39ne Valn6 Of S 027 0 There are unlimited types of earth materials with a wide distribution that can change over short distances 0 This vastly decreases the probability of one sample having the same properties as another 0 Soil can have great evidential value I ncredyz39ng Probdn39ne Valn6 0 Presence of rare or unusual minerals 0 Presence of rocks 0 Presence of fossils 0 Presence of manufactured particles Mineral5 0 Over 2000 kinds have been identi ed 0 About twenty are commonly found in soil but most samples will only contain three to ve 0 Characteristics used to identify include size density color luster fracture streak and magnetism Rocky 0 Aggregates of minerals Can be natural like granite or man made like concrete 0 Can be igneous sedimentary or metamorphic Family 0 The remains of plants and animals 0 Can help geologists to determine the ae of the rock 0 Some are scarce and can be used to trace back to a region or location Pa noogy 0 The study of pollen and spores 0 Should know what is produced in a certain area and what its dispersal pattern is 0 May vary in size and weight 5027 Evidence 0 The soil samples may have similar class characteristics 0 The soil can have individual characteristics if there is the presence of an unusual or specialized ingredients like pollen seeds vegetation or fragments Sand 0 Natural particles with a grain diameter between 1 16 mm and 2 mm 0 The color and contents depend on the parent rock and the surrounding plant and animal life Sand Chardclemlz39m 0 Texture shape grain size and sorting are determined by how the source was transported Sand 734065 9999 Continental sands are formed from weathered continental rock typically granite Ocean oor sands are formed from volcanic material typically basalt Carbonate sands are composed of various forms of calcium carbonate Tufa sands are formed when calcium ions from underground springs precipitate with carbonate ions in the salt water of a salt lake Sand Evidence 9 9 The type of sand from the sample may have similar class characteristics The sand has individual characteristics if it has an unusual ingredient or contaminant Cbamcleriylz39cy Of Glam 99999 Hard solid Usually transparent Mostly comprised of silica with various elemental oxides Brittle Exhibits conchoidal fracture Common Dpey 999999 99 999999 9 9 Soda lime plate and window glass containers electric lightbulbs Soda lead fine tableware art objects Borosilicate heat resistant Pyrex Silica chemical ware Tempered car side windows Laminated car Windshields Ply52ml Cbamcleriylz39cy Density Refractive Index light bending from changing velocities due to traveling from one medium to another Can measure by using a polarizing light microscope Fractures radial and concentric Color Thickness Fluorescence Markings striations dimples etc A side view of radial fractures can be used to determine the side of impact The side where the object exited the glass will show right angles of the hackle marks with the edge of the glass If a loose piece can be matched with the whole piece this can allow for an identi cation Can also use a jigsaw match to identify Delermz39mlz39o Of Refmclz39m I ndex 99 9 Immersion Method place the fragments into different liquids with different refractive indices Match Point when he fragment and the liquid have the same refractive index Becke Line a halo like glow around or inside the edge of the glass fragment This will disappear at the match point 0 0 Hot stage microscopy is used to change the refractive index of a single liquid without changing the liquid itself Use a high boiling liquid like silicone oil The halo on the inside of the glass means the glass has a higher refractive index The halo on the outside means the liquid has the higher RI Seqnenez39ng 0 A projectile will leave a larger hole when leaving the glass than when entering Glam A5 E nz39denee 0 0 Class characteristics refractive index density color chemical composition Individual characteristics jigsaw match lining up of hackle marks Collecting lee Sample 0 0 0 0 Should collect the largest amount possible from each object The sample should be removed like a window or light The inside outside of the object should be labeled If multiple broken objects all should be sampled and collected in separate containers Samples should be collected from throughout the sample Consideration should be given to other evidence like fibers or blood Paints And Coatings I ntrodnen39en 0 Can use a jigsaw match with large paint chips Dey inz39lz39eny 0 Paint gt Suspension of pigment in a vehicle film former gt Not a solution gt Pigment is usually inorganic metal salts used to give color gt Film former is organic polymers used to protect the surface and hold pigments Ollyer Coming 0 0 0 Varnish A film former usually polyurethane which is dissolved in a solvent and normally lacks a stain It used to protect wood Stain A mix of organic dyes dissolved in solvent Penetrates and stains wood Does not protect it Enamel glossy thermosetting paint How Deer Patent 130 0 When paint dries a thin polymer film forms and adheres to the surface while suspending the pigments Paint can dry by different methods gt Solvent evaporation rust proof paints gt Heating Thermosetting automotive gt Oxidation drying oils artistic paints linseed oil Anna523 Of Paint 0 Color Layer Analysis gt Need a cross section of a paint chip gt Cannot use a smear gt Compare same number order and relative thickness of layers 0 Solubility gt Solvents include acetone dichloromethane pyridine 0 Pyrolysis GC gt Analyze lm formers gt All layers analyzed together 0 FTIR gt Determine the type of lm former gt Doesn t show pigments unless they re organic gt Analyze all layers at once 0 Electron Microscopy gt Used for inorganic pigments gt Good for single layer or paint smears 0 UVVis Spectrophotometry gt First must separate pigment from lm former and dissolve it Paint Comporilz39on 0 Binders hold all components together Made of natural 0 synthetic resin polymers 0 Pigments impart color 0 Extenders increase solid content opacity and hiding ability 0 Vehicle lm former binds pigments and adheres to the surface 0 Modi ers affect durability gloss exibility hardness resistance to UV radiation etc Paint 0 Best to submit Whole object to laboratory for analysis 0 If impractical remove paint sample for submission 0 Collect a sample from the area near the alleged contact Microycopz39cAm Jiy 0 Can reveal layer structure by using angle cuts or thin sectioning 0 Can perform chemical reactions 0 Can also use uorescence microscopy IR microspectrophotometry and Raman microspectrometers I mlmmmm Amiga 0 SEM EDS X ray diffraction X ray uorescence pyrolysis GC can be used 1 Dru s Forensic Chemistry Profili Fall 2015 il Introduction Drug A natural or synthetic substance that produces a physiological or psychological effect Narcotic drug analgesics depress CNS functions like BP pulse rate and breathing rate Regularly using a narcotic will lead to physical dependence MS and IR are confirmatory tests for drugs The most common narcotics are derived from opium il Opiates Morphine can be extracted from opium and then synthesized to heroin Heroin is usually taken by dissolving it in water heating it and then injecting Heroin induces a high that s followed by drowsiness and a sense of well being The effects last 34 hours Codeine is also synthetically prepared from morphine OxyContin active ingredient oxycodone is not opium derived but produces the same physiological effects It is prescribed for chronic pain Methadone is another synthetic opiate which when taken by heroin addicts eliminates their craving for heroin while producing less side effects It is easy to overdose on opiates Specific cutting agents used can trace back to a distributor Some populations are at higher risk of overdosing on OxyContin than heroin il Hallucinogens Most wellknown is marijuana Cause changes in normal thought processes perceptions and mood Marijuana is the most controversial drug because its long term effects are still mostly unknown Also LSD mescaline PCP psilocybin mushrooms and MDMA LSD is synthesized from lysergic acid and hallucinations can last for 12 hours PCP phencyclidine is synthesized in clandestine labs and is often smoked ingested or sniffed Was formally used as a pig tranquilizer but the US banned it for this use because it was too dangerous It leads to many deaths due to reckless behavior and a feeling of invincibility It is often mixed with other drugs like LSD or Amps and can be sold in the form of a powder capsule or tablet The feelings of strength and invulnerability may lead to depression violence and suicide il Marijuana The amount of THC varies throughout the plant The highest concentrations are found in resin then the flowers and leaves Little is found in the stem roots or seeds The resin is called hashish Will not lead to physical dependency but there may be high risk in heavy longterm use A9 THC is common When acid is added to the cystolithic stone it will fizz The DuquenoisLevine test has two parts and will count as two tests It involves two color tests with two reagents Burned plant material will lack the bear claw Hash doesn t have the bear claw because it s oil it Depressants Depress CNS functions Calm irritability and anxiety help to induce sleep Alcohol barbs tranquilizers inhalants airplane glue model cement Freon Alcohol will quickly travel to the brain and suppress control of thought processes and muscle coordination Barbs downers are taken orally and induce a feeling of wellbeing and relaxation and can put the user to sleep Tranquilizers have the same effects Sniffing inhalants immediately causes exhilaration but also impairs judgement Can cause damage to the liver heart and brain and can even lead to death il Stimulants Include Amphetamine and cocaine Increase alertness and activity and decrease fatigue and appetite Amps and methamphetamine are usually injected and cause and initial rush and intense feeling of pleasure After coming down from the high the user experiences a period of exhaustion and depression Cocaine causes alertness and increases energy while decreasing hunger fatigue and boredom Cracllt is the base form of cocaine and can be smollted il Clab Drags Synthetic drugs that include MDMA GHB Rohypnol ketamine and meth GHB and Rohypnol are often used as date rape drugs MDMA causes hallucinations and Amplillte effects It is used to enhance selfawareness and lower inhibitions Chronic abuse often leads to seizures muscle breakdown strollte kidney failure and cardiovascular system failure Ketamine is an animal anesthetic that causes euphoria and hallucinations in humans It also causes impaired motor functions high BP amnesia and respiratory depression They quickly leave the body so it s difficult to detect them in a user s system it Anabolic Steroids Synthetic compounds related to testosterone Abused to accelerate muscle growth Can unpredictably affect mood and personality and lead to depression diminished sex dive halted bone growth and liver cancer il Drag Control Laws The federal Controlled Substances Act established five schedules of drug classification depending on abuse potential and medicinal value L Schedules Of Classification Schedule 1 high potential for abuse and no medicinal use Includes heroin marijuana methaqualone and LSD Schedule 11 high abuse potential and some medicinal use Includes cocaine PCP and most Amps and barbs Schedule 111 less potential for abuse and some medicinal use Includes barbs codeine and anabolic steroids Schedule IV low addiction potential and medicinal use Includes Darvon phenobarbital and some tranquilizers lillte Valium and Librium 0 Schedule V lowest addiction potential Includes opiate mixtures with nonnarcotic ingredients il Drag Identi cation 0 Two phases of analysis 69 Screening test preliminary and nonspecific used to reduce possibilities Confirmation test specifically identifies il Preliminary Analysis 0 Screening tests are used to narrow down the possible identity of the unknown substance 0 This is usually a series of color tests 0 Can also use microcrystalline tests which adds a specific reagent to the suspected drug to produce crystals of known shapes and sizes il ConformationalDetermination 0 Usually IR or GCMS quotll Qaalitative vs Quantitative 0 Identify the drug 0 Determine the percent composition 0 Need to quantify to determine intent to distribute quotll Collection And Preservation o The field investigator must make sure the evidence is properly packages and labeled to prevent loss or cross contamination and preserve chain of custody o If large amounts of drugs are discovered all of it must be seized
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