### Create a StudySoup account

#### Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

# Ma P Chem 11/16, 11/18 CHEM 345

Towson

GPA 3.37

### View Full Document

## 24

## 0

## Popular in Physical Chemistry

## Popular in Chemistry

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayli Antos on Saturday November 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 345 at Towson University taught by Dr. Ma in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Physical Chemistry in Chemistry at Towson University.

## Reviews for Ma P Chem 11/16, 11/18

### What is Karma?

#### Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

#### You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 11/21/15

P Chem Ma Fall 2015 0 Chemical Kinetics Mechanism vs Elementary Reactions gt One or more equations showing which molecules react and which bonds break or form Each equation represents an elementary reaction gt For example a possible reaction mechanism for H2 12 9 2H1 is 12 9 21 21 H2 9 2H1 where both steps are elementary reactions steps gt All elementary steps in a reaction need to add up to give the overall reaction Rate Law gt The dependence of the rate on the concentrations gt For a general reaction of aA bB 9 cC dD V k Alm 13F1 0110 qu gt m n p q are the kinetic orders of A B C D respectively gt k is the rate constant of the reaction Concentration Changes With Time gt Reactants decrease with time gt Products increase with time gt Intermediates increase and then decrease during the course of the reaction Concentrations Do Not Change With Time gt Catalysts gt Intermediates in a steady state where it is created and used up at the same rate gt Components that are buffered by means of equilibrium with large reservoirs gt Solvents environments The Rate Law Of An Elementary Reaction gt For an elementary step the order and molecularity are the same gt If an elementary reaction is reversible then the rate law is the difference between the rates of the forward and reverse reactions k gt A B gt P assume the product doesn t affect the rate v k1 A B concentrations are to the 1 order because there s only one molecule of each R1 k gt A B lt 1gt P assume the product doesn t affect the rate v k1 A B k1 P 0 Reaction Orders Zero Order Reactions N VVVVVVVV R313 12 ko ifvisinMsthenkoisinMs Differential rate laws 2 k0 2 k0 Separate variables dR kodt dP kodt Integrate both sides gitdm 2 Gt kodt EgitdW 2 Qt kodt Rt R0 kot Pt P0 kot Rt kot Ro Pt kot Po integrated rate law Plotting R vs time gives a graph of a straight line With slope ko Plotting P vs time gives a graph of a straight line With slope k0 First Order Reactions gt VVVVV V VVV V m k For an elementary reaction A 1gt B dt W 2 k1 A if v is in Ms then k0 is in Us Differential rate laws 2 k1 A 2 k1 A Integrate the simpler formula Separate variables kldt At 1 t Integrate both s1des we mdM k1 0 dt 1n Ao klt A Aloe k1t 1nA k1t 1nA0 Plotting A vs time gives a graph with an exponential curve Plotting In A vs time gives a graph with a straight line Where slope k1 Half Life And Relaxation Time 339 Half Life is the time equivalent for half of the initial concentration to react 1 ml ln2 09 1 2 When t t12 A 2Ao so 1n2 k1t12 or t12 k1 k1 0 v Relaxation Time I is the reciprocal of the rate constant 9 Iftu A Aloe k Aloe 1 339 On a plot of A vs t 12Ao t Second Order Reactions gt Class I k 339 For an elementary reaction of A A 2gt B a LW M 2 The rate law is v dt dt k2 A 339 Separate the variables dM kzdt 339 Integrate both sides E dM 2 k2 fot dt 1 1 kzt W Aio 339 On a plot of 1 A vs t the slope is kg and the y intercept is 1 Ao 339 V l2A2 ifv is measured in Ms k2 is 1Ms 3 When tt12 A Ao 12A0 12A0 9 L 3110 Ao kztlz Ao tlZ Aiokz gt Class II R 339 For an elementary reaction of A B 2gt P M M 39 dt dt dt k2AB k2 is measured in 1 Ms At time t A Ao X and B Bo X dill dAo x dAo Y dt dt dt d CT k2A0 xB0 x dx Separate variables W kzdt x dx t Integrate both s1des f0 W k2 f0 dt 1 Ab 3101 Ao B the same because this equation would be mathematically impossible This reaction could be represented as a class I reaction A In B plot kzt Initial concentrations of A and B can t be kzcwo 310t lr B the k term is the slope of a 0 P Chem Ma Fall 2015 0 Chemical Kinetics Mechanism vs Elementary Reactions gt One or more equations showing which molecules react and which bonds break or form Each equation represents an elementary reaction gt For example a possible reaction mechanism for H2 12 9 2H1 is 12 9 21 21 H2 9 2H1 where both steps are elementary reactions steps gt All elementary steps in a reaction need to add up to give the overall reaction Rate Law gt The dependence of the rate on the concentrations gt For a general reaction of aA bB 9 cC dD V k Alm 13F1 0110 qu gt m n p q are the kinetic orders of A B C D respectively gt k is the rate constant of the reaction Concentration Changes With Time gt Reactants decrease with time gt Products increase with time gt Intermediates increase and then decrease during the course of the reaction Concentrations Do Not Change With Time gt Catalysts gt Intermediates in a steady state where it is created and used up at the same rate gt Components that are buffered by means of equilibrium with large reservoirs gt Solvents environments The Rate Law Of An Elementary Reaction gt For an elementary step the order and molecularity are the same gt If an elementary reaction is reversible then the rate law is the difference between the rates of the forward and reverse reactions k gt A B gt P assume the product doesn t affect the rate v k1 A B concentrations are to the 1 order because there s only one molecule of each R1 k gt A B lt 1gt P assume the product doesn t affect the rate v k1 A B k1 P 0 Reaction Orders Zero Order Reactions N VVVVVVVV R313 12 ko ifvisinMsthenkoisinMs Differential rate laws 2 k0 2 k0 Separate variables dR kodt dP kodt Integrate both sides gitdm 2 Gt kodt EgitdW 2 Qt kodt Rt R0 kot Pt P0 kot Rt kot Ro Pt kot Po integrated rate law Plotting R vs time gives a graph of a straight line With slope ko Plotting P vs time gives a graph of a straight line With slope k0 First Order Reactions gt VVVVV V VVV V m k For an elementary reaction A 1gt B dt W 2 k1 A if v is in Ms then k0 is in Us Differential rate laws 2 k1 A 2 k1 A Integrate the simpler formula Separate variables kldt At 1 t Integrate both s1des we mdM k1 0 dt 1n Ao klt A Aloe k1t 1nA k1t 1nA0 Plotting A vs time gives a graph with an exponential curve Plotting In A vs time gives a graph with a straight line Where slope k1 Half Life And Relaxation Time 339 Half Life is the time equivalent for half of the initial concentration to react 1 ml ln2 09 1 2 When t t12 A 2Ao so 1n2 k1t12 or t12 k1 k1 0 v Relaxation Time I is the reciprocal of the rate constant 9 Iftu A Aloe k Aloe 1 339 On a plot of A vs t 12Ao t Second Order Reactions gt Class I k 339 For an elementary reaction of A A 2gt B a LW M 2 The rate law is v dt dt k2 A 339 Separate the variables dM kzdt 339 Integrate both sides E dM 2 k2 fot dt 1 1 kzt W Aio 339 On a plot of 1 A vs t the slope is kg and the y intercept is 1 Ao 339 V l2A2 ifv is measured in Ms k2 is 1Ms 3 When tt12 A Ao 12A0 12A0 9 L 3110 Ao kztlz Ao tlZ Aiokz gt Class II R 339 For an elementary reaction of A B 2gt P M M 39 dt dt dt k2AB k2 is measured in 1 Ms At time t A Ao X and B Bo X dill dAo x dAo Y dt dt dt d CT k2A0 xB0 x dx Separate variables W kzdt x dx t Integrate both s1des f0 W k2 f0 dt 1 Ab 3101 Ao B the same because this equation would be mathematically impossible This reaction could be represented as a class I reaction A In B plot kzt Initial concentrations of A and B can t be kzcwo 310t lr B the k term is the slope of a 0

### BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.

### You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

## Why people love StudySoup

#### "I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

#### "When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the material...plus I made $280 on my first study guide!"

#### "There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

#### "It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

### Refund Policy

#### STUDYSOUP CANCELLATION POLICY

All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email support@studysoup.com

#### STUDYSOUP REFUND POLICY

StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here: support@studysoup.com

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to support@studysoup.com

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.