Moral Reasoning EDU 2100
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Thomas nelson on Sunday November 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EDU 2100 at High Point University taught by Dr. Sarah Vess in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Nature of the Learner in Education and Teacher Studies at High Point University.
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Date Created: 11/22/15
Thomas Nelson 0 7 principles in which operant conditioning can be applied to teaching 0 Provide for an active response by the learner 0 Give positive consequences for correct responses You are correct Good answer 0 Positive immediate and frequent reinforcers to correct responses Continuous at first then intermittent 0 Maximize likeliness of correct responses and minimize likelihood of errors by shaping behavior through the use of small instructional steps 0 Avoid aversive control use promise of reward instead 0 Use cues to signal and prompt the correct response 0 Reinforce the exact performance you want the learner to learn 0 Remind students of rules by 0 Having them read the rules every morning 0 Making praise comments contingent on their being followed and referring to the rule in the praise comment I called on Tim because he raised his hand 0 Attending to only behavior within limits of the rules 0 Principles for effective classroom management 0 Specify the rules that are basis for reinforcement I Rules serve as prompts I As children learn to follow them they can be repeated less frequently faded 0 Praise desirable behavior I Teachers should catch children being good rather than waiting for them to misbehave Improvement should be rewarded Ignoring minor misbehavior is preferable to punishing it Reinforcement should be immediate Every correct response should be reinforced until it is mastered Teachers must be aware of themselves or else they won t be able to use these OOOOO principles effectively I Superstitious Behavior Behavior that occurs in response to accidental reinforcement 0 If a child finds money while walking home from school any behavior that happened to precede this will be reinforced and is likely to be repeated may continue to follow the same route home or may walk looking down 0 Social Cognitive Learning Theory Theory learning created by Albert Bandura that emphasizes the cognitive components of social learning 0 Social Learning Learning by observation particularly of other people s behavior 0 Both a cognitive and behavioral process Thomas Nelson 0 Often considered a bridge theory between behaviorism and more cognitively oriented learning theories 0 Model An individual who is imitated or whose behavior others learn from 0 Students learn a lot through observation I 5 things observers can learn from models 0 New cognitive skills such as reading and new behaviors such as how to operate a new piece of software 0 Strengthen or weaken observers previously learned inhibitions over their own behavior Learn what they can and cannot get away with I Inhibition Deciding not to perform a behavior after seeing a model perform it and suffer unpleasant consequence I Disinhibition Becoming more likely to exhibit a behavior after seeing a model do it and not suffer any adverse consequences 0 Models can serve as social prompts or inducements for observers Learn what benefits of performing an act are 0 How to use their environment and the objects in it 0 Seeing models express emotional reactions often causes observers to become aroused and express the same emotional reaction 0 Process of learning by observation is governed by 4 processes 0 Attention I People can t learn by observation unless they attend to and accurately perceive the modeled activities I To gain attention teachers should Emphasize the essential features of performance to be learned Split activities into parts Highlight the component skills Give students opportunities between observations to practice what VVVV they have seen 0 Retention I Observers must code info into images or abstractions or into verbal symbols and then store it in their memories I Rehearse practice immediately after 0 Production I Converting the idea image or memory into action I Performance Feedback Reviewing behavior and evaluating for performance progress 0 Motivation Thomas Nelson More likely to enact a modeled behavior if it results in a valued or desired outcome than an unrewarded or punished one 0 Moral Development Development of moral judgment 0 Moral Judgment Children s conceptions of rules and the respect that children acquire for these rules 0 Intentionality Whether or not an immoral act was intended to deceive someone 0 Stages of moral development 0 Stage 1 Moral Realism ages 27 Child believes in object responsibility being responsible for one s transgressions regardless of the intentions behind them The bigger the lie the worse it is Children regard moral rules as sacred and fixed as being created and handed down by authority figures and as being changeable only by authority figures heteronomous morality Expiatory Punishment Punishment that is strong and arbitrary and thereby allows the wrongdoer to pay for rulebreaking Retributive Justice An eye for an eye a tooth for a tooth Immanent Justice Idea that if you do something bad something bad will happen to you 0 Stage 2 Mutuality ages 711 Mutuality Equality or following the golden rule Reciprocity or taking turns or sharing equally cooperation or cheating is bad because it is not fair to others Distributive Justice A way of treating everyone the same and restoring equality punishment is neither automatic an absolute nor a means of making one pay for one s sins 0 Stage 3 Autonomy ages 1115 Rules are seen as social conventions set by mutual agreement and changeable through mutual agreement They are made by people and can be changed by people Equity Not automatically treating everyone exactly the same but rather taking into account each individual s particular circumstances 0 Lawrence Kohlberg Developmental Stages of Moral Reasoning 0 Moral Reasoning Stages of reasoning achieved by encountering moral dilemmas Thomas Nelson 0 Moral Dilemmas Situations in which a choice must be made between 2 desirableundesirable alternatives where no choice is either absolutely right or wrong I A man s wife is dying There is one drug that could save her but it is very expensive and the druggist who invented it will not sell it at a price low enough for the man to buy it Finally the man becomes desperate and considers stealing the drug for his wife What she he do and why 0 Level 1 Preconventional Moral Reasoning Young children s judgment of right and wrong is based on doing what is good for them egocentrism 39 Stage 1 PunishmentObedience Orientation gt Individuals are limited in their own actions only by fear of punishment gt Without appropriate role models some children may never leave this stage 39 Stage 2 PersonalReward Orientation gt You scratch my back and I ll scratch yours gt Might try to make a deal with the druggist or with law enforcement to ignore himher stealing it 0 Level 2 Conventional Moral Reasoning Individuals look beyond personal benefits and consider the effects of their actions on other people 39 Stage 3 GoodPerson Orientation gt Emphasis on Being nice Being approved of Pleasing others Peforming appropriate behavior Fulfilling mutual expectations Conforming gt Would say it s alright for the man to steal the drug because he is trying to help his wife 39 Stage 4 LawandOrder Orientation gt Morality is focused on Respecting authority Doing one s duty Maintaining the social order for its own sake gt Would say that stealing the drug is wrong under any circumstances because it is wrong to steal Thomas Nelson 0 Level 3 Postconventional Moral Reasoning Not attained until high school years and even then not attained by many Might say that stealing the drug isn t wrong as long as the man is willing to pay the price and would also see a need to protect right of druggist and so a better solution might be gained through legal recourse I Stage 5 SocialContract Orientation gt While laws are necessary they are relative gt They may be changed democratically if they no longer meet society s needs I Stage 6 UniversalEthicalPrinciple Orientation gt Only very few reach this stage such as Jesus Gandhi and MLK Jr gt Have a clear vision of abstract moral principles such as justice and fairness gt Not only teach these principles to others but sacrifice their lives if need be I 3 limitations of Kohlberg s theory 0 It is important to recognize that moral reasoning and behaving morally are not the same thing I Even though moral reasoning has been associated with moral behavior it doesn t guarantee that mora behavior will occur 0 There is an inevitable overlapping between stages as well as occasional tendency to appear to move in backward direction 0 Theory is biased in favor of Western cultures and particularly among the highest social and educational levels of Western culture 0 Carol Gilligan stated that women and men used fundamentally different approaches to making moral decisions 0 The male approach to morality is Morality of Justice individuals have certain basic rights that have to be respected O The female approach to morality is Morality of Caring because people have responsibilities toward others morality makes it imperative for people to care for others 0 Created 3 stages in the moral development of women I Stage 1 Selfish Morality Female children focus exclusively on themselves Thomas Nelson 39 Stage 2 Conventional Morality Progress from selfish to social morality believing it is wrong to act in their own interests rather than in the interests of others Stage 3 Principled Morality Learn that neither their own nor others interests should be ignored