Psychological Disorders, Chap. 15
Psychological Disorders, Chap. 15 PSYCH-1000
Popular in Introductory Psychology (PSYCH 1000)
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brynn Beveridge on Sunday November 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH-1000 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Rollins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology (PSYCH 1000) in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
Reviews for Psychological Disorders, Chap. 15
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 11/22/15
Lecture Notes Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders November 1620 2015 Introductory Psychology With Dr Rollins Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders a Causes and Correlations i Genetic predisposition ii Neurotransmitter imbalance serotonin norepinephrine dopamine iii Increased reaction to negative events decreased reaction to positive events iv Learned helplessness V External locus of control vi Perfectionism vii Negative explanatory style 1 Lack selfserving bias viii Can be triggered or increased by stress a b c d e f Fquot CPWFDFLPP ED Extremes of mood not related to external events Manic depression Mania i Emotions euphoria instability ii Cognition optimism poor judgment grandiosity iii Behavior hyperactivity insomnia talkativeness recklessness Genetic predisposition Can be triggered or increased by stress Onset late teensearly 205 Severely disordered and irrational thinking Distorted perceptions Inappropriate emotion and behaviors Psychosis Extremely disabling to everyday life Found in all cultures 9perception without perception i Auditory most common 9false beliefs i Delusions of persecution grandeur or 9belief that random events are personally relevant Attention problems i Do not lter out irrelevant stimuli ii Lack selective attention Disorganized thinking and speech i 9 jumping from one topic to the next hard to follow k Emotional disturbances i Inappropriate emotions laughing at something sad or vise versa ii Flat affect no emotions 1 Social problems withdrawn m Motor disturbances i Repetitive compulsive behaviors ii Lack of activity 1 Catatonic stupor rigidly immobile and unresponsive for hours a Waxy exibility can be molded and will hold that position 2 Catatonic excitement wild excitement i Presence of inappropriate behaviors ii More likel to respond to medication and treatment 0 d i Absence of appropriate behaviors ii Worse prognosis p Onset late teensearly 20s q Can have a sudden or gradual onset i Sudden onset as a result of stress results in a higher recovery rate r Can occur in episodes or chronically i Episodes are more common s VERY hard to treat t Biological Factors that increase risk i Genetic predisposition 1 If one has a biological parent with schizophrenia their chance of getting it increases ii Dopamine overactivity iii People with older biological fathers have a greater risk iv Drugs used to treat it are dopamine agonists and are more effective at treating the positive symptoms v Brain 1 Widespread abnormalities 2 Enlarged cerebral ventricles a Less brain tissue u Neurodevelopment Events that increase risk i Prenatal Trauma ii Low birth weight iii Oxygen deprivation iv Prenatal viral infection v Stress can trigger or worsen disorder 9 disruptive longstanding in exible dysfunctional iattems of behavior and thouiht that imiair social functioning i Psychopaths sociopaths ii Pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others iii Lack of conscience by age 15 iv Characteristic Symptoms 1 Problems with jobs relationships 2 Callous manipulative arrogant deceitful impulsive and irresponsible 3 Less empathy remorse guilt fear and anxiety 4 Less sensitive to punishment 5 May be charming and intelligent v Biological factors that increase risk 1 Genetic in uence 2 Show minimal physical arousal under stress a Less stress hormones 3 Adopted kids show greater risk if their biological parent OR their adopted parent has ASPD a Shows it CAN be learned b Environmental in uences 4 Show less of a reaction to others in distress 5 De cit in prefrontal cortex and serotonin levels vi Psychsocial factors that increase risk IV 1 Poverty 2 Instability 3 Abuse vii Hard to treat Chapter 16 Treatments for Psychological Disorders 9therapist used psychological techniques to help people 1 1St psychotherapy 2 Founded by Freud 3 Makes person aware of repressed unconscious con icts 4 Contemporary version a Focuses on social relationships and self understanding b Uses past experiences to see how the present is being in uenced i Aims to enhance selfawareness and selfacceptance ii Focuses on personal growth 1 Therapist provides support and companionship to client a Nonjudgmental 2 Believes the client has the ability to solve his or her own problems 3 3 ingredients a Acceptance unconditional positive regard b Genuinenesscongruence c Empathyre ection c i Sees problems as learned behaviors ii Uses principles of learning to get rid of unwanted behaviors and teach new positive behaviors 1 9patients are exposed to their unharmful phobias a Exposure with responsive prevention b Used to treat OCD and phobias c Patients learn that their phobias are harmless 2 9patient is exposed to increasingly anxietyprovoking stimuli while in a relaxed state a Aims to replace fear with relaxation b First therapist teaches relaxation techniques Second therapist and patient create a fear desensitization hierarchy i Focuses on the role that thinking plays in disorders ii Aims to change maladaptive thought patterns iii Selfstatement modification aims to replace negative self statements with positive ones 1 Iournaling about positive events helps i Most common ii Combines 2 techniques 11 9use medicine and medical treatments to treat disorders a Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy ECT i Electric current is applied to scalp to cause convulsions ii Was previously very brutal but is much milder today iii People are now given a sedative and muscle relaxant iv Effective in treating severe depression that hasn t responded to other treatments v Side effects confusion memory loss i ii Removal destruction of brain tissue Very uncommon today iv 1 Hole is drilled through skull and instrument is inserted to cut connections between frontal lobes and limbic areas 2 Very impreciseoften just scrambled some frontal lobe tissue 3 Founded by Dr MonizNobel Prize winner 4 Variable results lethargy immaturity impulsivity loss of personality Freeman s Transorbital Lobotomy 1 Went through eye sockets 2 Lasted 10 minutes a i ii iii iv V vi i ii iii vi vii viii i ii iii Used to treat schizophrenia Dopamine agonists Earliest Medications thorazine haldol Newer Medications clozapine risperdal zyprexa Side effects irreversible motor syndrome that involves uncontrollable movements Better at treating the positive symptoms Serotonin norepinephrine or dopamine agonists Used to treat depression anxiety PTSD 0CD Earliest medications 1 MAO1 s 2 Serotonin norepinephrine or dopamine agonists 3 Not used anymore Newer medications 1 SSRI s 2 Serotonin agonists 3 Prevent serotonin reuptake 4 Prozac Zoloft Paxil Other medications 1 Wellbutrin Effexor Cymbalta Most effective at treating severe depression Takes 46 weeks to be effective NOT happy pills Used to treat bipolar disorder Lithium decreases manic and depressive stages Anticonvulsants and antidepressants can also be used i Used to treat anxiety ii iii iv Tranquilizers Calming effects produces drowsiness and relaxation Benzodiazepines 1 Valium Xanax Librium 2 GABA agonists 3 Addictive Antidepressants have similar qualities