The Mexican American War
The Mexican American War Hist1311
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Imran Rashik on Sunday November 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist1311 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Kristen burton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 148 views. For similar materials see Us history in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 11/22/15
The Mexican American War The Whig Party Separation took place in Andrew Jackson s party due to differences in political beliefs about the nulli cation crisis and the national bank This separation led to the formation of the Whig Party Name based off of British political parties as Jackson was referred to as a tyrant and a king Start of the Second Party system Puled a lot of support from the defunct Federalist Party Eection for presidency in 1836 afterJackson stepped down Whigs wanted to run as many candidates as possible and try to split the vote enough to send it to the house Jackson took down the National bank and this caused an economic depression But Martin Van Buren did not help the people in this tough situation Van Buren s chances of getting reelected were ruined as his government did not help the people through economic depression People moved westwards after the panic of 1837 for better opprotunities During the election of 1840 the Whigs centered their election around one guy William Henry Harrison This election was important as it was the rst modern campaign for the presidency in the US A modern campaign consists of slogans This slogan consisted of quotTippicanoe and Tyler too It was a catchy slogan It was different from other elections as they did not use smears Log Cabin and Hard Cider A slogan by the Whig party which helped William Henry Harrison to win over Van Buren in a landslide in 1840 A newspaper mentioned a comment about William Harrison and included that if someone gave him a barrel of hard cider he would sit inside his log cabin So through this message they referred to him as a drunkard and a country pumpkin The Whigs used these words and turned into the log cabin and hard cider campaign So that they could appeal to the common people as many of them lived in log cabins and drank hard cider They used this slogan and turned it around against Van Buren and called him an elitist People called Henry Harrison old and he wanted to prove them wrong in his inaugural address on March 4 1841 It was a cold rainy day and he did not wear a hat or a coat He made a speech of over 2 hours long So he caught pneumonia and died 30 days later So Vice President John Tyler came to power to get the southern vote Whigs wanted to create an economy that could drive the nation forward They wanted to support a high tariff on imported goods But Tyler was a name in Whig only and he did not believe in the above two points At heart he was a Jeffersonian Republican When Clay put up the project for a national bank Tyler vetoed it So the Whig party kicked Tyler out of the party Manifest destiny An era from the beginning of Van Buren s presidency where people sought new opportunities by moving west due to political turmoil within the Whig Party between Tyler and Clay settement of people from coast to coast peope believed that it was their divine right to spread across and settle in the lands They drove out the tribes that lived on those lands Mora justi cation for territorial expansion It was a imsy rationalization for imperial ambition Pushed territorial expansion to the coast Spain was a declining empire towards the 19th century Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821 So Mexico was an infant government US wanted to take the Mexican land California gold rush Caifornia was a big draw for settlers due to the gold rush Gold rush began in a fort named Sutter s mill built byJohn Sutter in 1843 In 1848 gold plates were found there In 1849 the number of non native Californians were about 100 000 Within a few years California obtained the required number of settlers to acquire statehood Constituted the greatest overland mass migration in US history lnfusion of California gold was a huge boost to the US economy and a lot of it was used to fund the Union army s war effort during the civil war Compicate questions surrounding the admissions of state Heped initiate con ict with Mexico A trail developed from Sierra Nevada into Oregon due to migration of people and it was known as the Oregon trail Oregon fever broke out in the US and 5000 settlers died Mexican government recruited American settlers to develop the land in Texas as it was sparsely populated In 1820 Mexico gave Americans access to the land if they agreed to be a loyal law abiding citizen of Mexico Texas was suitable for the cultivation of cotton So western and southern farmers moved into this area with their slaves April 6 1830 Mexico outlawed further immigration of white Americans into Texas as too many people already got in But the Americans still kept in coming By 1835 the Americans outnumbered the Mexican residents by 10 to 1 In 1824 General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna launched an insurrection that resulted in the repeal of the Mexican constitution lt repealed legal loopholes that allowed Texians to keep their slaves In 1829 Mexico abolished slavery This was a problem for Texians as they needed slaves to work for them They believed Santa Anna wanted to free their slaves and make them slaves instead In 1833 Santa Ana became president By fall of 1835 Anglo Texians rebelled against Santa Ana s despotism More volunteers from the American west and south went in to provide support In 1836 a group of rebels were held up in a garrison in San Antonio In this building the Mexican army assaulted a small collection of Texians and Hispanics and a few US volunteers In February 1836 demanded that the rebels surrendered But the rebelled red a cannon in response The ghting continued for 12 days altogether During the battle of the Alemo a handful of delegates met and drafted and signed their own declaration of independence and became the lone star republic In the morning of March 6 the battle of Alemo came to an end as Santa Anna attacked from all sides and broke through the walls of the garrison and killed everyone inside Battle of the Alemo was a costly victory for Mexico as it took a lot to defeat a small number of people Nevertheless Sam Houston was the commander of the army of Texas and when he heard about the battle of Alemo he launched a surprise attack on the Mexican army while they were at an encampment They captured general Santa Anna and to gain his freedom Santa Anna signed a treaty recognizing Texas independence and establishing the Rio Grande river as the border between Texas and Mexico But the Mexican government did not recognize this In 1836 the lone star republic drafted a constitution and legalized slavery They also banned all free blacks The annexation of texas Texas gained independence they began pushing for annexation by the US They wanted to be absorbed by the US Texas would come in as a slave state Tyer was in favor of annexing Texas and he tried hard to do it James K Polk won the election of 1844 and ran a campaign to annex Texas California and Oregon This served as a platform of territorial expansion Tyler s nal act as president on March 1st of 1845 signed a request to help Texas join US on December 29th of 1845 Mexican American War Mexico never gave up that territory and so they denounced the annexation as an act of aggression They dispatched troops about the Rio Grande Pok ordered American troops to take up defensive positions near Corpus Christi So the soldiers were in doubly disputed territory May 91845 news arrived that Mexican troops attacked and killed American soldiers north of the Rio Grande 11 were killed and 5 were wounded and the rest were taken as prisoners But Polk s scheme to provoke an attack worked and he sent a war message to congress ntentiona act for adding land for the expansion of slavery It lasted 2 years from May 1846 to April 1848 US took California and New Mexico territory Caused political con ict in the US By Sept 13 1847 US troops entered Mexico city and occupied and enemy capital for the rst time in US history and there was an opportunity to take the whole of Mexico The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The treaty that ended the war between US and Mexico US got hold of Texas California New Mexico territory and established the Rio Grande as the southern border of the two countries in exchange for keeping the rest of Mexico Rati ed by Congress in March 10th of 1848 by US senate This transfer of territory was larger than Louisiana purchase It was a crushing defeat of Mexico a country that was trying to get its own government established To this day Mexico has not recovered from that war US rst successful imperial war Victory of this war led to a surge of national pride but overtime people came to see it as a shameful war of aggression Pok naively believed that territorial expansion would cause greater uni cation of US These acquisitions led to debate about the expansion of slavery over these territories This debate cultivated into the civil war