Abolitions and the Sectional Crisis
Abolitions and the Sectional Crisis Hist1311
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Imran Rashik on Sunday November 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist1311 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Kristen burton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Us history in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 11/22/15
Abolitions and the Sectional Crisis In the religious sphere of things there were ideas about glorifying God and increasing the kingdom of God. The south wanted to glorify God by treating others humanely. So the concept of paternalism came about. William Lloyd Garrison: -Abolitionist preacher. -Early member of an abolitionist movement. -Well educated. He read a book by an abolitionist preacher that convinced him that slavery was evil. -In 1831 he created the liberator, which was one of the first abolitionist magazine. -A lot of abolitionist literature, meetings and propaganda. -They started equating slavery with sin. -During Boston riot, people of the north tied him up and dragged him through the streets as they did not want him to put the idea of freedom in the mind of slaves. -was a member of the American Colonization society established in 1837. They wanted to remove the rememberance of slavery in US -1833 he found the Anti Slavery society, which was a much larger and popular abolitionist society. He formed this as he believed the original American colonization society was too weak on slavery. By 1840s they had a 160000 members in the members. It was popular with the people in the rural communities. -Garrisons supported abolitionism and also women’s rights and temperance. People in the north and the south depended on each other for cotton production. So they both supported slavery because there would be an economic devastation without slaves. First abolitionist society was called the American colonization society found in 1817. They claimed to be anti slavery but they actually wanted to remove the remembrance of slavery in USA. They started deporting free slaves. They shipped 15000 slaves. They did not approve slavery but they were not calling for the end of slavery. The Anti slavery society was formed in 1833. They started sneaking in pamphlets, books and even meeting in the South. Walker’s appeal: -Appeal for the abolition of slavery (1829 published) -Starts calling against slavery on moral grounds. -Southern Christian slave owners were hypocrites. -A freed slave wrote this and so it was scary to the south as it was illegal to teach slaves how to read. -Encouraged rebellion in other slaves Garrison also embraced women’s rights and temperance. A part of the people in the movement just wanted to go with abolitionism and did not support women’s rights and temperance. Garrison also said something negative about constitution (a covenant with death and an agreement with hell) because the constitution did not use the term all men are created equal until the 14 amendment. From an abolitionist stanadpoint the constitution is tainted by the fact that it created a subhuman category through the 3/5 clause. Showdown in the movement came to a breaking point in 1840 through the involvement of the Grimke sisters. Garrison allowed women like the Grimke’s to speak publicly. The sisters wanted men and women to be equal as they were all on the side of the abolition of slavery. It was easier for them to join an existing society that supported women’s rights than start a new one. But the mainstream people believed that the Grimke’s only supported women’s rights and were not interested much in abolitionism. The mainstream people who were kicked off at the women’s rights movement formed the American and foreign anti slavery society in 1840 in Massachusetts. They were more radical of the other abolitionist groups. Nevertheless a lot of black slaves gained education through these movements. People like Henry Bibb, Solomon Northrup , William Wells Brown and Fredrick Douglass did important works because they were educated. Solomon wrote a book called 12 years a slave which portrayed life of a slave portrayed by a slave. It also drew attention to the evils of the fugitive slave act. Fredrick Douglass: -The most prominent abolitionist speaker that was a free slave. - He wrote the book, Narrative of the life of Fredrick Douglass in 1845. -Enraged the abolitionists. -He was actually a runaway slave and feared he was going to be reenslaved. So he went to Europe for a few years to speak about slavery as mainland Europe had already abolished slavery. He raised money though speaking and used the money to buy his freedom. - He wanted to do more for the anti slavery movement. He admitted to people that he was a runaway slave. -He started an anti slavery journal called the North Star. He chose this name because the north star guided the runaway slaves to the north. The Underground railroad: Harry Tubman made 19 trips into the south and helped transport 300 slaves to the south developed a system to transport slaves called the underground railroad in 1850. Underground railroad was a system of houses, people and even churches that were used to aid and hide runaway slaves to the north. It had to continue all the way to Canada. She was a hated figure in the south and a 40 000 dollar bounty was put on her head. They wanted her dead because her actions put ideas in minds of slaves that they could escape too. The Amistad: In 1839, 53 slaves who were being were brought to Cuba in a Cuban scooner named the Amistad, rebelled and took over the ship. They made the rest of the crew to sail them to Mexico. But the crew took them to New York. The American navy captured the Amistad in New York and these slaves were put on trial. In March 1841, case reached the supreme court. Ownership of the slaves could not be establishd since they originally came over from a Spanish ship in Cuba. So Spain claimed ownership of the slaves. But by American law, if a sailor captured a ship that had slaves on them, he could take the slaves as their own property. People in Carolina who had already paid for those slaves wanted them too. John Quincy Adams decided to argue in favor of the slaves and said they should be free. So the 35 survivors in the Amistad were allowed to sail to Sierra Leone. The case unified and advanced the abolitionist movement . Increased the usage of the justice system to press a social cause. It created the idea that abolitionist movement could be a legal one. Reactions to Abolitionism: Elijah P Lovejoy’s who was an abolitionist had a printing press. This was broken down three times. After the third time he bought some guns along with the printing press In November 7, 1837 , a mob came over and surrounded the warehouse. They started throwing bricks. One of Lovejoy’s friends shot one of the rioters and killed him which enraged the rioters and they set fire to the building. Elijah lost his life when he tried to come out of the building. John Brown was an extremist abolitionst and killed people for his cause. So a social war started to erupt. The Defense of slavery: John C Calhoun stood up in the US Senate and told slavery was a positive good in society in February 1837. Setionalism: -People started putting laws in to support or deny slavery. -Two opposing sides. Centered around two parties. (Democrats: wanted slaves) Polarization which meant that people centre around the two parties and ended up identifying with one or the other although they did not believe all the things one the parties said. Further deepens the political divide between the North and the South.