Lecture 20 and 21
Lecture 20 and 21 Biol 202
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natasha on Sunday November 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 202 at St. Cloud State University taught by Schoenfuss, Heiko in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at St. Cloud State University.
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Date Created: 11/22/15
Biol 202 Central Nervous System Central Nervous System Development 0 Neural tube becomes brain and spinal cord 0 The opening of the neural tube become the ventricles 0 Forms well before any other organs 0 Ectodermal cells form it 0 Four chambers in the brain filled With cerebrospinal uid Central Nervous System I Consists of the brain and spinal cord I Needed for homeostasis 0 1011 neurons 0 1014 synapses I Responsible for everything we do perceive feel and think The Glial Cells 0 90 of the CNS is composed of glial cells 0 Five different types of glial cells 1 Astrocytes I Star shaped I Numerous functions 2 Ependymal cells I Line cavities 3 Microglia I Clean up creW I Phagocytes 4 Oligodendrocytes I Form the myelin 5 Schwann cells I In the PNS I Form myelin Regions of the Brain 0 Cerebral Hemispheres 0 Diencephalon 0 Brain stem 0 Cerebellum Cerebrum More surface area because it contains so many folds 1 Frontal lobe 0 Executive skills 0 Problem solving spontaneity memory language motivation judgement impulse control social and sexual behavior 0 Layers i Gray Matter 1 Outer layer composed of cell bodies ii White Matter 1 Fiber tract inside the gray matter like corpus collosum iii Basal nuclei 1 Islands of gray matter 2 Parietal lobe 3 Occipital lobe 4 Temporal lobe White Matter in the Brain 0 Projections Fibers cerebral cortex with lower levels of brain or spinal cord 0 Association Fibers connect two areas of the cerebral cortex on the same side of the brain 0 Commissural Fibers connect same cortical regions on two sides of the brain 0 Corpus Collosum location of commissural fibers The limbic system 0 Leaning 0 Emotions mom and newborn baby 0 Behavior Hemisphere Dominance 0 Right handed people are left hemisphere dominant 0 Dominant hemisphere controls 0 Speech 0 Writing 0 Reading 0 Verbal skills 0 Analytical skills 0 Nondominant hemisphere controls 0 Nonverbal tasks 0 Motor tasks 0 Understanding and interpreting music and visual patterns 0 Provides emotional and intuitive though processes Basal Nuclei 0 Gray matter deep in the brain 0 Produce dopamine 0 Controls certain muscle activities Diencephalon 0 Thalamus 0 Makes sure the right information gets to the right part of the brain 0 Relay station for sensory impulses 0 Hypothalamus 0 Important in the autonomic nervous system I Regulates homeostasis 0 Part of the limbic system 0 Pituitary gland is attached here 0 Epithalamus 0 Forms the roof of the third ventricle 0 Houses pineal body endocrine gland 0 Includes choric plexus forms cerebrospinal uid The Brain Stem 0 Midbrain O Tracts of nerve fibers Re ex centers for vision and hearing Between diencephalon and the pons Cerebral aqueduct Corpora quadrigemina little butt cheeks 0000 0 Pons Bulge in center part of the brain stem Composed of fiber tracts Control of breathing Between midbrain and medulla oblongata O Relays nerve impulses to and from medulla oblongata and cerebellum 0 Medulla Oblongata O Goes into spinal cord OOOO 0 Important control centers heart rate control blood pressure regulation breathing swallowing vomiting 0 Contains various nonvital control centers coughing sneezing Reticular formation 0 Network of nerve fibers scattered throughout the brain stem 0 Extends into diencephalon 0 Connects to centers of hypothalamus basal nuclei cerebellum and cerebrum 0 Fibers incoming sensory Cerebellum 0 Provides involuntary coordination of body movements 0 Bigger in humans because we need to balance smaller in 4 legged animals Central Nervous System Protection 0 Scalp and skin first line of defense 0 Skull and vertebral column armor around the spinal cord 0 Cerebrospinal uid shock absorber 0 Blood brain barrier last line of defense Meninges 0 Dura Mater 0 Double layered external covering 0 Periosteum attached to surface of the skull 0 Meningeal layer outer covering of the brain 0 Arachnoid Layer 0 Spider web layer in the middle 0 Pia Mater 0 Internal layer 0 Clings to the surface like saran wrap Cerebrospinal Fluid 0 Similar to blood plasma composition but no RBC or WBC 0 Formed by the choroid plexus and makes 400500mL a day 0 Forms a watery cushion to protect the brain 0 Circulated in the arachnoid space ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord 0 It is recycled three times a day Blood Supply to the CNS 0 Composed of two percent of body weight or three to four pounds 0 High metabolic rate 0 The brain uses twenty percent of oxygen consumed by the body at rest 0 Brain uses fifty percent of the glucose consumed by the body at rest 0 Depends on the ow of blood for energy High Demand for Blood 0 Depends on aerobic glycolysis 0 Required glucose and oxygen 0 Does not story glycogen 0 Fatty acids are not used for energy 0 Ketones are used during extreme conditions Blood Brain Barrier 0 Least permeable capillaries of the body 0 Excludes many potentially harmful substances 0 However it is useless against some substances 0 Respiratory gasses Carbon monoxide can pass right through 0 Alcohol 0 Nicotine O Anesthesia laughing gas The Spinal Cord 0 Continuous with the brain 0 Surrounded by the vertebral column 0 Starts at the medulla oblongata and goes to T12 0 Followed by cauda equine horse tail 0 Exterior is white matter 0 Interior is gray matter 0 Dorsal and anterior horns 0 The central canal is filled with cerebrospinal uid Spinal Cord Anatomy 0 Meninges cover the spinal cord 0 Nerves leave at the level or each vertebrae O Dorsal and ventral root Traumatic Brain Injuries 0 Concussions O Slight brain injuries 0 No permanent damage unless multiple ones happen 0 Confusion O Nervous tissue destruction occurs 0 Nervous tissue does NOT regenerate 0 Cerebral Edema O Swelling from the in ammatory response 0 Can compress and kill brain tissue Causes 0 Outside force impacts the head and causes the brain to move 0 Direct blow to the head 0 Rapid acceleration and deceleration of the head Whiplash 0 14 million people per year sustain a TBI 0 Skull is rigid inside not smooth Traumatic brain injury insult to the brain caused by an external physical force Diffuse Axonal injury tearing and shearing of microscopic brain cells Acquired Brain injury been in the brain since birth been in the brain since birth