Week 12 Notes (Chapters 13, 14)
Week 12 Notes (Chapters 13, 14) Bio 1510
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nausheen Zaman on Sunday November 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1510 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Nataliya Turchyn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see (LS) Bas Life Mch in Biology at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 11/22/15
Chapter 13 con Mainsis witfhnrut Emasiing aver u 35 F1 F I r s a s a gt h 1 a hymn rails llgw I g 3 In El I quot NU ErD E Si Q jg quot 1 139 mew timing 395 it klh 5 A 561A pmphase I i a A gewmami 3 m a A Meiosis Im a iiiM 39 I quotii by gt EL aquot P arenta i a A F11 genarati m Y e laicireeei tjgleliell1 Greeeing ever Elulll39lg prepheee I llllleieeie lll Parental 2ng Tlhe MIeGraweHill Cempaniee lne Fannieem required for remedhelim er display Il b recessive allele lbllaekbellyl il W domilnarll allele gray ltle dy39l l vg recessive allele vestiglal wlnge l vg l demilnelnl allele llmrmel wings Parental generatien F1 gelnemtileln Using Recombination to Measure Distance Between Genes Parenl al maie gametes l U 1 v9 b ivy 11 q I 415 parental ij 39 In wild type gray body be re 15417 Why bib vgf Hg normal Wing m 1 i gnfjgerallm A if i 92 recombinant 39 3 possible In 1 i I i gray Wilt393 3 39 3 gametes J a 3 U vestiglal Wing ab 03 bquot 16939 Mb vgvg bro mug quot m a v i i39 39 45 29 H i Baiecombiriant J 1 m C I E i I black body G if u 39U a H normalwlngj i b vg bb vytvg bb Mgw 8 H E gt 39 gt 405 parental O I mutant type i quot blagkbpdm b 19 bb ngg by iing vestigial wmg 39 180 1000 01310131 moombinam oiispring 18 recombinanl frequency 1 143 CM between the two loci i recombination recombinant progeny X 100 frequency total progeny 1 recombination 1 map Linit mm 1 centimo rgan CM winter 14 DNA The Genetic Material 0 Review of Nucleotide structure quwig39ht The McGrvewailill Cempanieel Int Permsaim required 15m repreduetien er dimlay Nlitregerloue base NH Phepl39lele glreup D P39 0 1H A OH in RNA Sugar llll39l DNA 0 Different Nitrogenous Bases Emmgi 39 lllh39e HeismanHIquot Ind Pmmmn renum eal fer repre udm er mamas illliitreg neue Ease m Wa i w jNquot393 N I i39 E H4 I l Flac lll l7 H H Adenine Guanine NH I U It ll 9 14 r HjLIElgr N44 H4 Neel l It ll It HECKNJC J l ICENCU H LRNfee All l l a H H H C Fieeine Thymirme Uracil both NA and RNA llle only llFlNe only 0 How is DNA Synthesized o Phosphodiester bond forms between 5 phosphate groups of one sugar and 3 OH hydroxyl group of adjacent sugar 0 Linear strands of DNA have a free 5 phosphate group and free 3 OH hydroxyl group 3D Structure of DNA How is DNA Synthesized where s free 9 is attached 1390 the 539 C of one terminal Sugarphosphate backbone V whersd free OH is matched 1390 the 339 C of another terminal sugar 0 Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins I Xray diffraction studies suggested that DNA had helical shape of about 2 nanometers nm 0 James Watson and Francis Crick Figured out DNA was a double helix 2 strands of nucleotides Bases point inwards to for base pairs Purines paired with Pyrimidines I Strands antiparallel Base Pairing One strand runs 5 3 Opposite strand runs 3 5 o Pyrimidines always pair with purines o TAbond2Hbonds o CGbond3Hbonds DNA Replication Semiconservative 0 Parent DNA molecule unzips 0 Each parent DNA strand template for new daughter DNA strand I Confirmed by MeselsonStahl Experiment 0 DNA Replication Process 0 Replication of DNA begins at several specific site along DNA molecule origins of replicationreplication origins 0 DNA polymerase 3 works with other enzymes to generate DNA strands o Eukaryotes have many origins of replication 0 Prokaryotes only have ONE origin of replication Parental DNA V Flleplication duplex origin New f 39 39 l strands 39 J1EE TWQ daughter DNA duplexes H WFEJHQTM Mata HEW hc39 PhatHim rwmlmu Gaping339 39 Template Strand New Strand Fempil te Strand New Strand Sugar nhaaphaie a Hial ail a li i H DNA polymerase Iii 0 DNA Replication Fork 0 Leading and lagging strands gt make daughter leading and lagging strands 0 Without SSB singlestrand binding proteins parents strands come back together I SSBs keep them apart DNA Replication Fork Preventquot parent strands sops DNA from Twis ng om reforming a double helix 39 Bclamp lay neleosrng the Tensron slidingdam madam In double helix strand 7 3 Singlestrand 21m l mmmumu 5 7 binding protein V DNAgyrase 39 New bases Open 3 clamp 5 1 F quot1 397 r 7 H a i39LLLP l 3 L 39 V g s u r I k 39 gt I 7 Laggingl strand 39 P In 7 m r r Clamp loader 1 rlmase quot Newibases Parent DINA e w my F W Breaks H bonds between mun por39en39l39 strands allowing DNAp olymerasem 5 them To separate apart 6 ll 3 DNA polymerasel 7 r r V Vgi r 3499an Strand L Okazaki lra gmen It ll l39 llllll DNA gage RNA primer 0 RNA Primer Facts I Complementary to DNA means that nitro bases of RNA primer can form hydro bonds with nitro bases of DNA 0 A RNA primer T DNA 0 G RNA primer C DNA 0 U RNA primer A DNA I RNA primer and DNA run antiparallel to each other opposite directions 0 DNA 3 gt 5 ends 0 RNA Primer 5 gt 3 ends I Last ribonucleotide has a free 3 OH to which DNA polymerase 3 can attach to 1st deoxyribonucleotide Semnd kazaki fmgm em nears mplg ri n The our in the aggingstmnd tern pl ate u l huws raplicmm 1m occur 5quot 40 3 39 an bath sfmndls mm The cvampligx moving to The Ilgf f1 7 Fim kazaki fragm em Primase Singlestrand binding pmfei ns SSE DNA pulym emse Leading sample pm sirand Chmplomd r L dd 7 Ii 12M 7 5a strand 3 EM wigs DNA palymemae DFJAIH y nerueeli Fi39r39s r RNA primer 1 g IIIlilllllll l llllllmI Illl l 1 7 7 7 7 7 V 7 7 7 7 7 W 777 7 I Clamp louder Leading strand replicates 539ATCGAACCCT339 Parent DNA molecule 3l T A C T T G G A 5 DNA polymerase III moves from IefT To righT 339 9 539 ends Leading daughter strand 539 AT C G AA C C C T 339 or 339TC C CAAG CTA5 Lagging daughter strand 539 A G G G T T C G AT 339 or aTAGCTTGGGAa Wt ID MLGJE39PIEHIII line Pennlassm required tor39reprmtu jm or am Lea ing strand no problem quot Replication first round lllliilillllilll Lagging strand probilem at the end 5r K 7 j 3 x 1 r w 17quot 1 h r 7 cs Last primer Primer removat Leann V strand t g39 4 5quot 7 77 1 7 I 1 K 77 Law a I It I I ll I il l l H strand 3 a 4 AVV A 7 A AA AA Removed primer Replication second round cannot be replaced 5 W7 1 7 r 7 i x x 3 I I It I I I I I It r o Telomerase Keeping Telomeres Long Enough o Telomerase gt reverse transcriptase gt enzyme that reverses transcription I Transcription when DNA used to make RNA I Reverse transcription when RNA used to make DNA 0 Each linear chromosomes has two telomeres Winn EmmettBit Inc Fatimaion In remedyElven or E quot 39 wf39 f ii i T j i IIIIIIIr Synthesis by texl omeraae Telomerase x f Telnrnere extended by teiltomeraae quot a Template RNA i5 1 part of enzyme