Week 13 Lecture Notes
Week 13 Lecture Notes BIOL 3020-001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maria Martinez on Sunday November 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3020-001 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 11/22/15
Week 13 Lecture Notes Biology 3020 Vertebrate kidney o holonephros kidney 0 type of kidney that has a tripartite kidney setup 0 Is present in larval hagfish and in the limbless amphibians o Takes up much of the length of the body cavity 0 Pronephros kidney 0 anterior portion of the kidney functions mainly in embryos with the exceptions of salamanders o Mesonephros Kidney 0 found it in amphibians opistosnephron of most amniotes called quotback kidneyquot 0 Metanephros Kidney o develops into the adult kidney of amniotes 0 These kidney types fall under the tripartite kidney type which includes a pronephric ductpersists throughout embryo and into adult life pronephric tubules Archinephric duct Mesnephron metanephric diverticulum and archinephric diverticulum develops into ureter which only amniotes have Urinary bladder 0 stores urine 0 in some fish and expansion of the apinephric duct serves as a urinary bladder 0 Fish 0 The urinary bladder is small in the function is not well understood 0 cartilaginous fish 0 The duct will open into the cloaca so there is not much of a urinary bladder o Amphibians o the urinary bladder is large and bilobed a transitional epithelium allows it to expand o Amniotes o The urinary bladder develops from the allantois o Develops initially to help shed nitrogenous waste 0 The allantois enlarges to form the bladder 0 some frogs most turtles and some fish 0 water can be extracted from the bladder 0 Birds 0 lose the bladder o Ostrich have urinary bladders 0 snakes and crocodilians 0 lack a urinary bladder o Mammals o the urinary bladder is present but cannot absorb water from it Reproductive tract 0 gonads 0 can develop into testes or ovaries 0 Develop in and in an indifferent state 0 The gonads will automatically develop into ovaries if there is no hormonal sign to develop into testes o Testes o seminiferous tubules produce Sertoli cells o Sertoli cells large cells that produce hormones produce a compound mullerian duct inhibiting factor which causes a regression of the Paramesonephric duct leaving only one duct associated with the reproductive system 0 Interstitial cells cells between the seminiferous tubules produce leydig cells which produce testosterone Which causes maintenance and further development of the archinephric duct 0 Archinephric duct I how the kidney gets rid of things it empties out into the cloaca I Embryonically persists in males it forms the vas deferens were the overdone I Present in all vertebrates the archinephric duct links to testes becoming the vans defrens o Spermatogonia I germ cell line that separates the body from the cell I Produces gametes that undergoe meiosis I This produces primary spermatocyte would divide into second undergo second meiotic division becoming spermatids which mature into spermatozoa o placental mammals 0 have gene sex determination sex of individual is controlled by genes 0 At fertilization determination of sex is established 0 Sexual region of the Y chromosome SRY The gene that stimulates the gonads to develop and testes a gene product from it will convert and indifferent gonad into testes 0 Have parenephric duct inhibiting factor PDIF and mullerian duct inhibiting factor MDIF 0 birds 0 the females are heterogametic ZW while the ales are homogametic 22 birds rely on males to produce one or two types of gametes 0 snakes 0 WW snakes are the same as birds 0 temperature dependent to sex determination TDSD o The temperature at the appropriate stage of incubation determines the sex 0 All crocodilians most turtles and few lizards or have a dependent sex determination The temperature causes an enzyme stimulation which changes the gonads 0 These animals are sensitive to estrogen the problems that arise because of this this are estrogen mimics in the environment which cause feminization of embryos o The feminization of embryos results in these animals having a true penis which is only half the size Estrogen doesn39t affect humans as much as testosterone affects humans 0 The testosterone does affect cattle the freemartin I Which are the result of the spillage of hormones which cause a masculine nation in females due to the testosterone 0 Sex reversals o In fish coral reef fish is they undergo sex are starting as one sex and becoming the other 0 True toads I have Bidder39s organ 0 A cluster oocytes that undergo development which is found in the cranial portion of the gonads o The function of this organism certain in testes the gonads is destroyed the bidders organ functions as a functional ovary even in females it will do this 0 Ovotestes are found in and fishes and amphibians both ovaries and testes are on the same structure 0 Intersexes are common in this and are linked to pesticides Reproductive system only really requires one organ the gonads the most important Ducts are also important but not all organisms have them Females o The archinephric duct regresses o No PDIF so the Paranephric duct persists in to oviducts o Gonads I the ovary o Ducts I absent in hagfish and lamprey I Both ovulate With in the body cavity so the body cavity acts as a tube to carry the eggs and dump them through abdominal pours o All J awed vertebrates I have a duct systems to transport the gametes o Cartilaginous fish I the mullerian duct develops into four regions 1 Funnel o The Mullerian ducts come together to forward to form a funnel to collect the eggs shed from the cavity 2 Shell gland 0 Produces mucus eggs albumin and in some species stores sperm 3isthimus 0 stores eggs like uterus and has the archinephric duct 4 Uterus 0 An expanded oviduct o Sharks I Archinephric duct persists and serves to drain the kidney I Female sharks Will have both the Archinephric duct in the Mullerian duct 0 teleost fish I have both duct systems development I The Archinephric duct purses to drain the kidneys but is not involved With the kidneys I Mullerian induct progresses I The oviduct regresses and becomes modified to fold and create a channel to wrap around the ovary this creates a tube in it Will drain it I The eggs stay With in this fold and then Will be drained This is called the ovarian o amphibians I tubules Will multiply Within the kidney I Oviduct persists from Mullerian duct I The archinephric duct drains the kidneys I Ovaries are shed Within the body cavity 0 amniotes I the archinephric duct progresses I The ureter Will drain the kidneys The mullerian duct develops to service ovaries as an oviduct Epoophron 0 located Where the ovaries are 0 A vestigial portion of the Archinephric duct have no function can develop cysts or tumors Uterine types 0 mammals o opossum I uterus includes the infundibulum paired oviducts Where the eggs are the uterus links into the vagina the vaginal sinus formed by the paired vagina is coming together the lateral vagina I The penile gland is bifurcated so it39s blitz during copulation o Kangaroos I includes the same structures as the possum but the vaginal sinus extends creating a central vaginal canal I Has three vaginae o placentals 0 have four primary uterine types 1 Duplex uterus I The uteri are swollen I It has one vagina and has paired uterus each With its own cervix I found in many rabbits and rodents 2 Bipartite uterus I Two types of embryonic ducts come together and the cervix creates a partition in the uterus I found in Carnivores cats dogs Whales and dolphins 3 Bicornuate uterus is I To uterine horns are present I One single large uterine body With the cervix that extends into the vagina are present I Found in some bats moles and toads I The urethra comes in forming a urogenital sinus 4 Simplex uterus I The two malaria and ducks to fuse into a large uterine body I The small ovaducts empty out into the uterus I The urethra dumps into the urogenital sinus I Found in primates humans bats sloths and armadillos I Only has one cervix Male reproductive system 0 jawed fish 0 do not have a duct system 0 The sperm is shed into the body cavity 0 cartilaginous fish 0 the arcade nephric duct persists to develop into the Vans deferens o The upper part of the archinephric duct carries urine so it services urine and sperm 0 bony fish 0 the archinephric duct drains the kidneys o Sperm duct develops in some 0 teleost fish 0 the sperm duct in develops in association to the testes but doesn39t ducts With the testes o The Archinephric duct drains the kidneys 0 Sharks and salamanders 0 variable but a portion of the archinephric duct transports sperm 0 So the archinephric duct is shared by both the testes and the kidneys Copulatory organs 0 Parity o l Ovaparity egg laying o 2 Ovoviviparity I The female retains egg and the reproductive tract but no structures developed to provide nourishment to embryos so they get nerd nutrients from the egg sac o 3 Vivalarity I female has intimate connection to the embryo so the embryo gained its nourishment directly from the female 0 Fertilization 0 Internal I Typically involves copulatory organ to allow sperm to enter the female I Structures developed the door the sperm 0 External I seen in aquatic animals I do not require the copulatory organ to enter the female to allow sperm I cartilaginous fish 0 claspers found it all 0 Are modified components of the pelvic fin skeleton esh rolls to form a channels to extend an insert into the cloaca o All have internal fertilization o Bony fish I Most have external fertilization I The egg is cast outside of the body I Some have internal fertilization I Present in the guppies or Mollies 0 Have modified anal fin to become gonadapodium large projection o The male guppy insert the gonadapodium to ejaculate sperm 0 The fins rays modify to support that gonadapodium