Arch 3411 Week 10-11
Arch 3411 Week 10-11 ARCH 3411
U of M
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Norden on Sunday November 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 3411 at University of Minnesota taught by Robert Ferguson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Architecture History to 1750 in Architecture at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 11/22/15
Arch 3411 Week 1011 111015 Neolithic Houses Banpo Village ca 50002000 BCE Timber frame system common system Great Wall of China 111 BCEXIV CE Unity of Chinese identity Rammed earth and timber frame with brick and stone used as casing for earth One side of wall side that faces direction where enemy is coming from is crenelated hide behind the tall portion of wall and duck over to open part to shoot Plan of ChangAn now Xian VICE under Tang Dynasty Capital of Tang Dynasty One of the greatest and richest cities in the world at the time Re ects principles of Kao Gong Ji One of the earliest manuscripts that serves as a guide for city planning based on Confucian teachings with its square layout grid streets three entrances on every side and a central artery that leads from south wall to the palace in the north Approach from the south gate up what would be Roman Cardo Street to imperial residence Way of thinking and creating the city is similar to the way Romans did Mountains in the north No public outdoor rooms or an equivalent to them instead there are markets on East and West side Courtyards within palace and as well as in individual housings In uenced plan of Beijing Page 87 Beijing rebuilt several times present city XVXVI centuries In uenced by plan of ChangAn Contains much of early configuration Residential districts have walls constituted by fronts of houses Houses were like a city like Roman houses Intemal courtyards Four separate walls needed to be passed through to reach palace Outer City wall Inner City wall Imperial City and then finally the Forbidden City or Palace Use of moats increased sense of separation Forbidden City Beijing XV CE Termed forbidden because palace was off limits to commoners Largest complex of historic buildings in country Ceremonial axial approach to palace that re ects power and hierarchy Page 89 House Beijing XVXVI House is a community of halls built around open courtyards Courtyards take the place of outdoor rooms Contain 2 courtyards closer one is for visitors while the deeper courtyard is for family including servants Courtyards represent ritual life Number and size of courtyards showed social status Each hall is a structural unit Timber frame system support roof so walls don t have to Emphasis on privacy high walls lined front of house Exterior walls are usually made of wood or whatever could be afforded Have to turn at right angle from street to enter house so ghosts can t come in ghosts can only move in straight lines Houses faced south Page 89 Walled Villages Hong Kong New Territories XIVXV centuries Walls were necessary as protection against pirates Walls created by row of houses Toulou Houses Fujian Province XVIII century Public activities happen in central courtyard Radiating out from center is increasing privacy Multistory Each of the dolos is a clan of a very extended family more like a village Everything in imperial palace is one story except watch towers Fogong Pagoda Shanxi Province ca 1050 Earliest surviving timber pagoda in China Represents Boti tree and connection between heaven and earth Balconies and roofs are cantilevered out from structural supports Housing for sacred relic like a stupa Each level is a prayer hall Foguang Temple Shanxi Province 857 Rafters support tile roof In order to align appearance with cosmic reality there are curves similar to Greek method Built on terraces main hall is highest part of site Brackets that cantilever out to support roof Have to be of a certain class to have brackets in house elaboration and number of brackets also depends on status Buddhist prayer hall have images arranged on long wall and opposite wall can be opened to outdoors so pilgrims can pray from courtyard Prayer is oriented towards images Cow Street Mosque Beijing founded 996 and restored in XV and XVIII In uenced by Islam Minaret tower is comes from Buddhist practice Usually only have 1 oor Mausoleum Cemetery Mosque Complex Kashi 18th century Adopted traditional Muslim form of architecture Our current architectural style begins to emerge Ise Shinto Shrine UjiYamada rebuilt every 20 years since 690 CE Two plots of land every 20 years the shrine is rebuilt on other plot while the one on the other is demolished Two shrines built 4 miles apart Outer Shrine Geku dedicated Toyouke goddess of earth and agriculture and Inner Shrine Naiku dedicated Amaterasu goddess of sun Both necessary for agricultural prosperity two shrines keep harmony and balance between two opposing forces Simple small building built with much care four concentric circles surround shrine Modern carpentry One venerates shrine from outsides rarely does one enter Design probably evolved from vernacular granaries utilitarian structures on posts to protect contents from dampness and bugs Page 97 Horyuji Temple Nara 685 EXhibits postandlintel system based on bracketed construction Earliest surviving Buddhist temple Palace church as it is connected to the palace Highly developed timber construction Seems to reinforce its sanctity by restating layered quality and imitating parts of pagoda No way to access upper levels Roof structure and eaves were based on Chinese design Single wooden support extends form base to top Eaves are slightly upturned giving appearance of it hovering Ba1anced asymmetry Page 94 Todaiji Temple Nara ca 1200 Part of a stateencouraged program to build Buddhist monasteries in every province Issue of what qualifies a replica comes up Images on wall and opposite wall can be opened to be viewed from large congregation on outside Great Buddha hall replicates original largest wooden building in the world Conserves simplicity of previous tradition Page 95 Phoenix Hall Byodoin at Uji 1053 Suburban villa owned by wealthy family Palace chapel private Buddhist monastery Page 96 Himeji Castle 160110 Foundation serves as platform for superimposed halls that are residential parts on upper oors Similar architectural elements as pagoda Castle is a series of layers walls within walls HeaVily fortified Masonry walls with timber construction Imperial Palace Kyoto Imperial Palace is located on cardo direction 12 halls that accommodate ministry surround courtyards Replica of palace built 1895 Shinto sacred site so replica is also a Shinto shrine Self consciously simple and plain reference to traditional wooden architecture of Japan Double layered roof configuration of hall and porch comes together as one looks more like a traditional Japanese farm house instead of a pagoda which was deliberate Shoji sliding doors wooden screens Ryoanji Monastery Kyoto XIVXVI Rock garden better captured in detail instead of as a whole Landscape of rocks and sand that is ritually maintained Slightest change in position changes your perception of landscape Slightest change in light also changes perception Katsura Detached Villa Kyoto 1615 Grid of tatami mats Can see the grain of wood and the way shoji screen allows interior and exterior to merge Distinction of house and garden begins to dissipate Shugakin Detached Villa Kyoto 1655 Analogous to imaginary landscape of rock garden this is a little more literal Demonstrates the role of constituting Visible image Japanese Tea house Miniature garden is part of experience Parallels to Italian renaissance Villa gardens Cultura1 interchange
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