Final test lecture notes (week 13)
Final test lecture notes (week 13) SOCL 100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allyson Notetaker on Sunday November 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCL 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Matthew Pruitt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 11/22/15
Week 13 Lecture Notes An overview of stratification Social stratification: refers to a system in which groups of people are divided into layers according to the relative power, property, and prestige. It’s a way of ranking large groups of people into a hierarchy according to their relative privileges. Effects life changes. Every society stratifies its members. Ideology: believes that justify social arrangements. All stratification systems are all upheld by ideology Stratification systems: 1. Caste system: an ascribed (closed) system of stratification. o Status determined at birth. o Born into a certain level of caste and it’s lifelong. o They practice endogamy (marry in the same caste). o They guard against ritual pollution (types of unclean contact across class). o Lowest class level could not go out early in the morning or late evening; shadowing will pollute. o In India, the ideology that came up with caste is Hinduism. 2. Class system: an open system of stratification based on income and wealth. o Initial position in society is based upon that of one’s parents. o The boundaries are fluid. o Social mobility is possible (can move up or down the social class system) o Marx looked at social class as it was largely determined on their relationship of the mean of production. Bourgeoisie (owners) Proletariat (workers) Max Weber’s three components of social class: 1. Property (wealth) 2. Power (ability to control others even over their objection) 3. Prestige (honor) Why is stratification universal? The functionalists views: Classic view: Davis’ Mor thesis: o Society has positions that need to be filled. o Some positions are more critical or important than others o They argue that we offer property, power, and prestige proportional to skill requirements and functional importance of jobs. Critique of functionalists perspective: o How do we measure the importance of positions and does pay reflect the functional importance? o If true, society would be a meritocracy? o Stratification is dysfunctional to many. o Over time, there is a strangulation of talent. Meaning the competition becomes less open. o It ignores the role of power in creating and maintaining stratification. Components of social class Wealth: consists of property and income minus debt. o Property: things that you own o Income: wages and dividends Power: ability of individuals or groups to achieve goals, control events, and maintain influence over others despite opposition. Prestige: ranking is consistent across countries and over time. o Occupational Prestige Scores: 1. Physician: 86 2. Lawyer: 75 3. High school teacher: 66 4. Plumber: 45 5. Barber: 36 6. Bartender: 25 o Four features that are associated with jobs that have high job prestige: 1. Typically pay more. 2. Typically require more education. 3. They involve more abstract fault. (using mind/ presentations) 4. More autonomy (people have more personal control, less direct supervision) People often display prestige through status symbols. Percent of all income in the US (1970-2012) Richest 20% o 1970: 43.4% o 2012: 51% nd 2 20% o 1970: 24.5% o 2012: 23% 3rd 20% o 1970: 17.4% o 2012: 14.4% 4 20% o 1970: 10.8% o 2012: 8.3% 5 20% o 1970: 4.1% o 2012: 3.2% Top 5% o 1970: 16.6% o 2012: 22.3% Top 5% and top 20% were the only increased. Wealth (percent of all wealth (2006)) Richest 1%: 34% Top 5%: 57.5% Top 10%: 69.5% Bottom 90%: 30.4% Bottom 50%: 2.5% The class system: The upper class o 3% The middle class o 40% The working class o 30% The lower class o 27% The upper class: The upper-uppers (1%) The “blue bloods” Membership almost always based on ascription They have “old money” standards The middle class: Upper-middles (14%) o $76,000+ yearly income Lower-middles (26%) o $46,000-$75,999 yearly income Working class (30%) o $19,000-$45,999 yearly income Lower class (27%) o $9,000-$18,999 (working poor 13%) o Under $9,000 (underclass 14%)