HDFS 3400 Chapter 3
HDFS 3400 Chapter 3 3440
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Bacevice on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 3440 at Ohio State University taught by Katye Miller in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Human Development at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 01/30/15
Human Sexuality Chapter 3 The Vulva The external genitals of the female including those listed below The Mons Veneris 0 Translated from the mound of Venusquotroman goddess of love and beauty Pads of fatty tissue between the pubic bone and the skin Pubic hair prevents uncomfortable friction and provides cushioning during intercourse The Labia Maj ora the outer lips of the vulva part covered with pubic hair The Labia Minora the inner lips of the vulva O O Prepuce the foreskin or fold of skin over the clitoris Contains extensive nerve endings Genital Alteration O O Piercing or body art Risks from piercing include contractive HIV hepatitis B and bacterial infections Some women have surgery to alter the size or shape of their labia minora called Iabiaplasty Vaginal plastic surgery is the third fastest growing cosmetic procedure in the United States The Clitoris a highly sensitive structure of the female external genitals the only function of which is sexual pleasure O O The clitoris increases in size during the several days prior to ovulation Glans the head of the clitoris which is richly endowed with nerve endings Shaft the length of the clitoris between the glans and the body Crura the innermost times of the cavernous bodies that connect to the pubic bone About the same amount of nerve endings as the head of a penis The only purpose of the clitoris is sexual pleasure and arousal Many women find internal pleasure and stretching sensations inside the vagina during manual stimulation or intercourse highly pleasurable The Vestibule the area of the vulva inside the labia minora O 0 Rich in blood vessels and nerve endings and its tissues are sensitive to touch Both the urinary and vaginal openings are located within the vestibule The Urethral Opening tube through which urine passes from the bladder The Introitus and the Hymen O Introitus the opening to the vagina located between the urinary opening and the anus Hymen tissue that partially covers the vaginal opening Imperforate hymen a condition in which tissue that completely seals the vaginal opening causes menstrual ow to collect inside the vagina The hymen can protect vaginal tissue early in life but has no other function Hymenoplstysurgical reconstruction of the hymen Popular in middle eastern cultures The Perineum area between the vagina and anus of the female and the scrotum and anus of the male Underlying Structures Cavernous bodies the structure in the shaft of the clitoris that engorge with blood during sexual arousal Vestibular bulbs two bulbs one on each side of the vaginal opening that engorge with blood during sexual arousal Bartholin s glands two small glands slightly inside the vaginal opening that secrete a few drips of uid during sexual arousal Internal Structures The Vagina a stretchable canal in the female that opens at the vulva and extends about 35 inches into the pelvis O Speculum and instrument used to open the vaginal walls during a gynecological exam Kegel exercisesa series of exercises that strengthen the muscles underlying the external female or male genitals Mucosa collective term for the mucous membranes moist tissue that lines certain body areas such as the penile urethra vagina and mouth Rugae the folds of tissue in the vagina The Gradenberg Spot GSpot Glands and ducts in the anterior wall of the vagina Some women experience sexual pleasure arousal orgasm and an ejaculation of uids from stimulation of the Grafenberg spot Arousal and Vaginal Lubrication I Vasocongestion the engorgement of blood vessels in particular body parts in response to sexual arousal I Vaginal lubrication enhances the possibility of conception by helping alkalinize the normally acidic vaginal chemical balance pH changes from 45 to 6065 with sexual arousal o Vaginal Secretion and Chemical Balance of the Vagina I Douching is not necessary for routine hygiene It can alter the natural chemical balance of the vagina and increase a woman s susceptibility to vaginal infections and sexually transmitted diseases The Cervix small end of the uterus located at the back of the vagina 0 Contains mucussecreting glands o Os the opening in the cervix that leads to the interior of the uterus The Uterus pear shaped organ inside the female pelvis within which the fetus develops o Perimetrium thin membrane covering the outside of the uterus o Myometrium the smooth muscle layer of the uterine wall 0 Endometrium the tissue that lines the inside of the uterine wall The Fallopian Tubes two tubes extending from the sides of the uterus in which the egg and sperm travel 0 Fimbriae fingerlike ends of the fallopian tubes into which the released ovum enters o Ectopic pregnancy a pregnancy that occurs when a fertilized ovum implants outside the uterus most commonly in a fallopian tube The Ovaries female gonads that produce ova and sex hormones o Ovulation the release of a mature ovum from the ovary 0 Three classes of sex hormones estrogen progestational compound Menstruation the sloughing off of built up uterine lining that takes place if contraception has not occurred Attitudes 0 Negative myths about menstruation date back to the Old Testament o Menstrual rituals in other cultures are often ambiguous o In some Native American traditions women are believed to be most powerful when menstruating 0 Women who have positive attitudes towards menstruation are less likely to take sexual risks 0 Women who have been sexual with their partner during their periods were comfortable with menstruation and were more aroused by sexual activities Menarcheinitial onset of menstrual periods in a young women Menstrual Physiology 0 The length of the menstrual cycle is usually measured from the beginning of the first day of ow to the day before the next ow begins Mittelschmerz cramps middle painquot caused by the swelling and bursting of the follicle or by a little uid or blood from the ruptured follicle that irritates the sensitive abdominal lining The Menstrual Cycle 0 O Folliclestimulating hormone a pituitary hormone secreted by a female during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle FSH stimulates the development of ovarian follicles In males it stimulated sperm production Luteinizing hormone the hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates ovulation in the female In males it is called the interstitial cell hormone and stimulates production of androgens by the tests Corpus luteum a yellowish body that forms on the ovary at the site of the ruptured follicle and secretes progesterone Menstrual Phase the phase of the menstrual cycle during which menstruation occurs Proliferative Phase the phase of the menstrual cycle during which the ovarian follicles mature Secretory Phasethe phase of the menstrual cycle during which the corpus luteum develops and secretes progesterone Blastocyst multicelled descendant of the united egg and sperm Sexual Activity and the Menstrual Cycle 0 0 Prior to and during ovulation women respond positively emotionally to erotic imagery Heterosexual men experience heightened sexual interest when women are in the fertile phase of their cycle Menstrual Cycle Problems 0 Premenstrual Syndrome symptoms of physical discomfort and emotional irritability that occurs 2 to 12 days before menstruation Premenstrual Dysphoric disorder premenstrual symptoms severe enough to significantly disrupt a women s functioning Dysmenorrhea pain or discomfort before or during menstruation I Hormones that induce uterine contractions I A condition in which uterine tissue grows on various parts of the abdominal cavity Amenorrhea the absence of menstruation I Primary failure to begin to menstruate at puberty I Secondary disruption of an established menstrual cycle with the absence of menstruation for 3 months or more Self Help I Moderate to vigorous exercise throughout the month and proper diet can contribute to improvement of menstrual difficulties I Oral contraceptives decrease menstrual cramps and the amount of ow 0 Toxic Shock Syndrome a disease that occurs most commonly in menstruating women that can cause a person to go into shock Menopause Physiological changes that occur during the transition period from fertility to infertility in both sexes Perimenopause the time period before menopause when estrogen is decreasing Menopause cessation of menstruation as a result of the aging process or surgical removal of the ovaries Hormone Therapy the use of supplemental hormones during and after menopause or following surgical removal of ovaries o Bioidentical Hormones same molecular structure as a hormone produced by the human body 0 Controversy in Hormone Therapy Research I Relate to heart disease and breast cancer Gynecological Health Concerns Urinary Tract Infection caused by bacteria entering the urethral opening Urinating after intercourse helps wash out those bacertia Vaginal Infections o Vaginitis in ammation of the vaginal walls caused by a variety of vaginal infections The Pap Smear a screening test for cancer of the cervix Surgical Removal of the Uterus and Ovaries o Hysterectomy surgical removal of the uterus o Oophorectomy surgical removal of the ovaries The Breast Secondary sex characteristics the physical characteristics other than genitals that indicate sexual maturity such as body hair breasts and deepened voice Mammary glands glands in the female breast that produce milk Breast SelfExam 0 Breast Cancer Screening I Mammography a highly sensitive xray test for the detection of breast cancer 0 Breast Lumps I Cysts I Fibroadenomas I Malignant Tumors 0 Breast Cancer
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