Decolonization and European Integration
Decolonization and European Integration HIST 102 011
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HIST 102 011
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Strickland on Sunday November 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 102 011 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Daniel Snyder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see European Civilization from the Mid-17th Century in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 11/22/15
HIST 102 Notes Decolonization and European Integration The Decline of the West Western power declines from height of late 19th century due to 30 years of con ict world wars and becomes especially evident from 1945 to the 1970s Era of Cold War initially thought to be reason for change but historians now believe that decolonization movements are what caused much of the decline Global South begins to regain power after Global North had dominated them since the late 1800s Great unraveling of Global North s domination is spurred by nationalism of people in the Global South movements for independence Birth of Modern Racism Nationalist leaders faced the difficulties of danger of military retaliation people that culturally identify with the imperial power imperial power s sophisticated political system personal economic gain lack of communication and the fact that different nations and cultures find it difficult to work together This last point is the direct cause of the borders of Africa being drawn arbitrarily by the European powers who had little to no understanding of how the nations there worked This is a huge indicator of our modern racist thinking as to how we refer to African nations as tribes while European nations are clans and fail to understand the fact that these nations have differences Instead we group all the nations living in what the Europeans named Nigeria Mali Somalia etc into one group when this is not the case Leads directly to the civil wars we see today SudanSouth Sudan Rwanda CAR DRC etc Superpowers come in bringing money arms and supplies making it a destabilizing competition between the US and USSR causing civil war con icts to extend and be more destructive ie Vietnam and the Congo Satyagraha India 1947 Nationalists want generally speaking their own state Mahatma Ghandi education abroad in England as a lawyer was the Indian nationalist leader He was very successful in knitting together a nationalist movement from such a diverse group of patterns Led through example hunger strikes traditional clothing civil disobedience spinning wheel to symbolize Indian cotton production despite Britain outlying it Satyagraha means holding onto truth in Sanskrit and Hindi and was the of cial name for the idea of nonviolent resistance that Ghandi initiated in India s struggle for independence from Britain Indonesia 19451949 Liberated by Japanese in 1942 during Paci c conquests of WWII and once the Japanese were defeated in 1945 they claimed independence from the Netherlands Dutch attempt to reestablish control through police action in 1947 and 1948 militarily wise they succeed Ends with Americans stepping in to keep up a good image and force the Dutch to give Indonesia independence or they lose their aid Dutch choose independence which Indonesia received in full in 1949 Indochina Vietnam 19451975 Unlike in Indonesia where the leaders were democratic the Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh was communist Despite being an ally to the West with the most notable occasion being his serving of the US s precursor to the CIA as Agent 19 during WWII and a believer in many teachings of the Founders US opposes him automatically Therefore the Americans take the side of the French against Ho Chi Minh sending the French aid until they lose in 1954 After the loss the US attempts to create a democracy in South Vietnam but this failure leads to another bloody war with the French and the Americans along with fighting a war in China Finally gain a very hard won independence in 1975 US Intervention in Iranian 1953 and Guatemalan 1954 Democracy CIA overthrows democratically elected socialistleaning leaders with Iran s Premier Mohammed Mosaddeq and Guatemala s President Jacobo Arbenz Guzman Guatemala despite all the US fancy rhetoric about stopping the spread of communism in South America was out of economic fear of loss of consumerism of US produced produce Iran was a similar story both British intelligence and the CIA determined that Mosaddeq had communist leanings when he started to kick out Western oil companies and a CIA backed a military coup led to Mosaddeq being arrested Iranian overthrow lead to the traditional Shah being reinstated as the governing power until another revolution in 1979 led to his overthrow That original military coup contributes directly to the US hatred that we see today 1954 Bandung Conference the NonAligned Movement After Gandhi s assassination at the hands of a Hindu fanatic in 1948 his successor Nehru declares a nonaligned movement This is essentially to say a movement of neutrality in which all nationalist movements should not align with either the US or the USSR Americans see this as a direct blow almost worse than communism itself and this leads to tensions despite the neutrality that India professes in the matter Second Wave of Decolonization Africa Ghana 1 95 7 o Nationalist movements started in Asia and spread to Africa during the later 1950s 0 Starts with Ghana in 1957 who declares independence from France under their nationalist leader Kwame Nkrumah Nigeria 1960 0 Led by nationalist leader and poet Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe Algerian War of Independence 19541962 0 Bloody con ict that included such atrocities as assassinations and terrorist attacks both in Algeria and abroad in France US and Soviet Meddling 0 Although this took place on both sides the most notable occurrence of meddling by the superpowers was in the Congo 0 Democratically elected but socialist leaning President Lumumba is assassinated in 1961 by the CIA 0 Following a military coup the country is led by the US led puppet government of Dictator Mobutu European Integration European Union formed from this initial economic integration When people reference the EU most think currency however this is not exactly the case since the UK is part of it but has a different currency Therefore it is more than economic agreements but also political and diplomatic with the end goal essentially being a United States of Europe Series of interlocking agreements that was built topdown and in fits and starts Birth of the EU 1945 Western Europe was devastated less so than Eastern Europe but still pretty affected Churchill referred to Europe as being like a slaughterhouse US introduces the Marshall Plan into this to assist Western Europe Starting with the Committee of European Economic Cooperation CEEC US gives money with strings attached economic cooperation instead of competition Allowed politicians to remove protections like tariffs to allow for economic growth When CEEC first meets Europe asks for 21 billion which is scaled down to 13 billion The CEEC is followed by the Organization of European Economic Cooperation OEEC which is renamed the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development OECD US is proving that economic growth is only possible without competition between states Noting functional markets require finance capital consumer markets and labor In summary EU would not have happened without the American s aid How the OEEC worked OEEC worked with governments and the Office of the Special Representative OSR with the latter being led by the Economic Cooperation Administration ECA who answered to the president and Congress This EPU gt OEEC gt OSR gt ECA gt Congress and the President 1 untry missions governments Marshall Plan didn t waste a penny best economic planning the US has ever done Example Dutch want steel market in order to militarize and compete with Germany and France but US says no and redirects them to shipbuilding in order to reduce redundancy through cooperation Counterpart Program 0 Prevented in ation by having every US coming in be matched by the equivalent amount being taken out of circulation and put into a fund 0 Repressed consumerism to increase overall wealth o 95 of Counterpart funds spent how they were supposed to while 5 is spent by US as a tax to make OEEC possible OSR propaganda etc EPU handled conversion of currency pounds to francs to gilders etc Transition from OEEC Marshall Plan to ECSC Jean Monet proposes new idea through French president about the Ruhr river valley the European Coal and Steel Community ECSC Would be a joint cooperative run by a supranational organization to end France German competition 6 original signatories jointly owned all steel and coal produced by Ruhr valley Treaty of Rome 1957 Created integrated market with approval of 10 signatories the European Economic Community Also created the European Atomic Energy Community EAEC or Euratom to regulate atomic energy to prevent nuclear proliferation Treaty of Maastricht Convert common market into common currency the euro we know today Transitioned over 10 years and caused migration economic boom and unemployment among other things Goal of labor and financial economies being mobile global investment Global investment is great however a bunch of money is sloshing around which will lead to the near economic collapse in 20072008 No regulation in EU and US of this capital investment of the global financial market Connection between Decolonization and the Economic Integration of Europe Liquidation of empires leads to cutoff of economic benefits from the colonies Marshall Plan essentially replaces the capital lost from the colonies Destructed nations are brought up to speed by the Marshall Plan a mere 10 years after WWII Precariousness of EU s stability is still seen today Greece s bankruptcy