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Week 12 book notes

by: Cassidy Zirko

Week 12 book notes Chem 141

Cassidy Zirko
College Chemistry 1
Mark Cracolice (P)

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College Chemistry 1
Mark Cracolice (P)
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Zirko on Sunday November 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 141 at University of Montana taught by Mark Cracolice (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see College Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Montana.


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Date Created: 11/22/15
Week 12 Chem 141 Prof Cracolice Chapter 30 How Can the Three Dimensional Arrangement of Atoms in Molecules be Predicted 111615 301 How does Electron Pair Arrangement Affect Molecular Shape No single theory explains all molecular shapes in a lab Use all theories in specific circumstances to determine how molecules are shaped Molecular Geometry shape of a molecule Valance Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory theory used to describe molecular geometry applies primarily to carbon nitrogen and oxygen Carbon is in everything VSEPR electron pairs we draw repel each other in real molecules Distribute themselves around the central atom as far away from each other as they can get Electron pair locations locations of lowest potential energy I satisfy minimization fo energy Electron Pair Geometry arrangement of electron pairs Electron pairs can be shared in covalent bond or be in lone pairs Beryllium and Boron don t conform to the octet Electron Pair Angle angle formed by any two electron pairs and the central atom Electron pairs are as far apart as they can be all angles are equal Bond angles are derived from geometry Arrangements are their minimum energy positions Tetrahedron simplest rectangular solid identical faces Tetrahedral for identical equilateral triangles for faces Both are 3D they can be drawn at on a page Electron Pairs Geometry Electron Pair Angles 2 Linear 180 3 Trigonal planar 120 4 Tetrahedral 1095 5 Trigonal bipyrmidal 120 and 90 6 Octahedral 90 302 How can the Overall Shape of a Molecule be Predicted Molecular geometry describes shape of molecules and arrangement around central atom Bond Angle angle between two bonds formed by the same central atom Electron pairs around central atom bonding pairs no lone pairs bond angles are the same as electron pair angles Molecules with 1 or 2 lone pairs bond angle close to those from VSEPR Week 12 Chem 141 Prof Cracolice Description Lone Bonded Geometrical Name Bonding Angle pairs pairs 2 electron pairs 2 bonded atoms None 2 Linear 180 3 electron pairs 3 bonded atoms None 3 Trigonal Planar 120 3 electron pairs 2 bonded atoms 1 2 Angular 120 4 electron pairs 4 bonded atoms None 4 Tetrahedral 1095 4 electron pairs 3 bonded atoms 1 3 Trigonal pyramidal 1075 4 electron pairs 2 bonded atoms 2 2 Bent 1045 5 electron pairs 5 bonded atoms None 5 Trigonal bipyramidal 120 and 90 5 electron pairs 4 bonded atoms 1 4 See saw 120 and 90 5 electron pairs 3 bonded 2 3 T shape 120 and 90 5 electron pairs 2 bonded 3 2 Linear 180 6 electron pairs 6 bonded atoms None 6 Octahedral 90 6 electron pairs 5 bonded atoms 1 5 Square pyramidal 90 6 electron pairs 4 bonded atoms 2 4 Square planar 90 0 Summary Drawing Wedge and Dash Diagrams O 1 2 atoms on the same plane as the page connect with solid uniform line 0 2 Atoms that are behind the plane of the page connect to central atom by a dashed line width increasing width moving away from the central atom O 3 Atom in front of the page plane connect to central atom by the wedge shaped solid line width increases away from central atom 0 Procedure Predicting Molecular Geometries O 1 Draw Lewis Diagrams O 2 Count total number of electron pairs around central atom bonding and lone pairs Count only bonding pairs 0 3 Determine electron pair geometry 0 4 Determine molecular geometry 0 5 Draw wedge and dash diagram of molecule 0 How is Molecular Geometry Affected by Multiple Bonds 0 Not very affected 0 Number of regionsof electron density surrounding central atom establishes molecular geometry 0 How does Bond Polarity and Molecular Shape Affect Molecular Polarity 0 Polar Molecule one which there is a asymmetrical distribution of charge 0 O O 0 Symmetry balance Asymmetrical Distribution of charge charge distribution is unbalanced Diatomic molecules with tow atoms differe from each other will be slightly polar Polar molecules tend to line up with more electronegative atoms point toward the place with the positive charge less electronegative pointing towards plate with negative charge 0 Nonpolar cancellation of polar bonds I no overall net regions of positive and negative charge Dipole I no net dipole moment Week 12 Chem 141 Prof Cracolice O O Moment combined effect of a quantity and a force 2 polar bonds can cancel each other out Central atom has no lone pairs and all atoms bounded to it are identical molecule is non polar The conditions not met molecular needs more analyzing Chapter 31 How is Bonding Explained When the Atomic Orbital Overlap Model Fails 111715 0 Sigma O bond orbitals overlap end to end so only one of the lobes of the p orbital is involved in the covalent bond 311 How are Orbitals Arranged to Form Single Bonds 0 Using CH4 as a reference 0 0 00000 O Experimentally measured to have all four bonds all equal Quantum mechanical model predicted ground state electron configuration 1s22s22p6 Covalent bonds formed from overlap of half filled orbitals Quantum mechanical model of time didn t describe CH4 with 4 bonds Determined by Linus Pushing quantum mechanical model was for separate atoms Orbitals on a central atom change when bonding occurs Hybrid orbitals orbitals of separate atoms change into hybrid orbitals when bonding to 2 or more atoms Hybrids of orbitals of separate atom 0 How do Orbitals Hybridize when there are Two Single Bonds to a Central Atom 0 O O O O O 0000 0 Considering BeHz I experimentally discovered to have 180 Each terminal atom has 1s1 electron configuration meaning that it is half filled Must be 2 half filled orbitals on the Be atom to be able to form 2 bonds New hybrid model to explain the structure of Beryllium Mix of atomic orbitals number of atomic orbitals that are mixed to equal number of hybrid orbitals Lowest energy orbitals mix to form hybrid orbitals mix to form hybrid orbitals with energy in between energies of atomic orbitals 1s and 2s and 1 2p orbitals will mix when bonding Sp hybrid orbitals hybrid orbitals from mixing s and p Have characteristics of both s and p orbitals 2 lobes like p one lobe look more spherical because it is combined with the s orbital Can predict when sp hybrid orbital is used for covalent bonding 0 How do Orbitals Hybridize when there are Three Single bonds to a Central Atom 0 Considering boron tri ouride it has 3 BF bonds that are all exactly alike Week 12 Chem 141 Prof Cracolice 0 Fluorine both s and 2 of the 3 p orbitals are all filled leaving 1 half filled 2 p orbitals 0 Born has 3 corresponding 12 filled orbitals which leads to 3 single bonds sz 1 s orbitals and 2 p orbitals will mix and hybridize 0 Each sp2 hybrid orbitals has each half filled 2p orbitals that will overlap with 1 electron I used for bonding when the central atom has 3 single bonds and no lone pairs 0 How do Orbitals Hybridize when there are Four Single Bonds to a Central atom 0 Forming four hybtrid orbitals formed with the 4 lowest energy orbitals 1 s orbitals and 3 p orbitals O Sp3 hybrid four half filled orbitals forming 4 single bonds 0 It is also possible for sp3 hybrid orbitals when 1 or more orbitals is not used for bonding I orbital is filled with unshared electron pair I EX NH3 and H20 0 How do Orbitals Hybridize when there are More than Four Single Bonds 0 Central atom forms more than 4 single bonds I have more than 4 halffilled orbitals that can be used for bonding 0 Number of hybrid orbitals formed is equal to the number of atomic orbitals hybridized I more than four atomic orbitals are needed with 5 or 6 single bonds Restricts central atom to have valance electrons in n3 or higher EX PF5 5 possible bonds Cant fit 5 bonds from 4 s and p orbitals have to add a d orbital Sp3d hybrid one s orbital 3 p orbitals and 1 d orbitals are hybridized Sp q d2 hybrid orbitals when 1 s orbital 3 p orbitals and 2 d orbitals overlap to form 6 total bonds 0 half filled orbitals on central atom with half filled 2p orbitals on each terminal atom will from 6 covalent bonds 0 How Can the Hybrid Orbital set on a Central Atom Be Predicted 0 Draw the Lewis Diagram on the species 0 Determine the electron pair geometry 0 State the hybrid orbital set that accounts for the number of electron pairs on central atom 0 Make sure to include lone pairs on diagrams 0 00000 312 How are Orbitals Arrange to Form Multiple Bonds 0 Looking at ethylene CH4 0 First bond in CC double bond is consistent with bonding that causes trigonal planar I sp2 hybridization 0 Three of four valance electron half fill each of the three sp2 hybrid orbitals and 4th valance electron is half filled and is unhybridize 0 The second of the double bonds between the carbon occurs because the 2 halffilled p orbitals one from each carbon over laps Week 12 Chem 141 Prof Cracolice 0 Pi H bond bond formed by side by side overlabe of orbitals 0 Only form if there is a sigma between the same atoms as well 0 The first bond of a multiple bond is always a sigma bond any following are pi bonds 0 How do Double Bonds Cause a New Type of Isomerism 0 000000 0 O C2H4C12 has many isomers because of the rotation of the single bond Physical properties can show distinct isomers Polarity gives a way to deduce the nature of the structure of isomers Chlorine atom is on the same side it is polar When the chlorine atom is on the opposite side its nonpolar This only occurs with a restricted rotation CisTrans Isomer molecules that have 2 isomers that result from a particular atom being on either the same side or opposite sides of a double bond Cis same side Trans opposite sides 0 How are Triple Bonds Formed O 00 Triple bonds sp hybrid orbitals on each carbon will bond with sp orbitals on other carbon sigma bond Second sp orbital overlaps with s orbital I sigma bond Halffilled p orbitals on each atom overlap form side to side to form pi bonds Triple bond consists of overlap of 1 sp hybrid forming sigma bond and each p atomic orbitals left over on the atom bond to form 2 pi bonds 0 How do Orbitals Hybridize in Molecules with More than one Possible Lewis Diagram 0 O O O 0 Considering benzene 2 Lewis diagrams All bond angles are 120 I nonpolar cc bond lengths are the same Equal bond distance with no alternating double and single bonds sz orbitals overlap end to end sigma bond P orbitals maximize distance from hybrid orbital by being oriented 90 from the other bonds P orbitals overlaps with both neighbors creating a continuous orbital that is located above and below the plane Delocalized pi electrons are note restricted to a narrowly defined location I they belong to the entire molecule Chapter 33 What Particulate Level Interaction Govern the Liquid State 112115 331 What Macroscopic Properties Characterize Liquid 0 Solid particles held in fixed position relative to each other 0 Specific freedom with a liquid state particles move around themselves 0 Gas particles gain complete independence from each other Week 12 Chem 141 Prof Cracolice 0 How do Intermolecular Attractions Affect Properties of Liquids 0 000000 0 O Liquids are easy to understand More helpful when comparing liquids to gases Gas particles attractive and repulsive forces don t matter particles are far apart These forces are electrostatic in nature Smaller distance stronger forces Gases may be compressed liquids cant no space between liquid particles Gases expand to fill containers liquids do not strong attractions hold liquid particles together Gases have low densities liquids have high densities mass per unit of volume Gases may be mixed in a fixed volume liquids cant no space between particles of a liquid combining liquids increases volumes Liquids have many measurable properties 0 Vapor Pressure 0 O O 0 Vapor pressure partial pressure exerted by gaseous particles Equilibrium vapor pressure gas space above the liquid is closed vapor increases to a definite volume Vapor pressure inversely related to intermolecular attractions Stick togetherness is very high H few liquid particles escape into air creating low vapor pressure 0 Heat of Vaporization O O 0 Heat of vaporization energy required to change 1 mole of a liquid to a gas while at constant temperature and pressure Heat of condensation energy released in opposite processes vapor condenses to liquid phase Greater sticktogetherness greater amount of energy needed or released Amount of energy to overcome intermolecular attractions 0 Boiling Point O O O Liquids turn into gases by boiling Boiling point average kinetic energy of liquid particles is high enough to over come the forces of attraction that holds the particles in the liquid state high sticktogetherness move motion higher temp to separate particles within the liquid 0 Viscosity O O O Particles in liquid move about relative to each other creating ow Viscosity ability of a liquid to ow internal resistance to ow partially based on intermolecular attractions More sticktogetherness high viscosity 0 Surface Tension O O O 0 Surface tension internal energy toward a minimum surface At surface all attracted forces are downward Spherical drop all attraction at surface is inward High sticktogetherness more resistance to anything breaking or stretch surface Week 12 Chem 141 Prof Cracolice 332 What Forces Operate Between Liquid Particles 0 Distrigution of electrical charge within molecules is not uniform 0 Some polar some nonpolar 0 Polarity and size contribute to intermolecular attraction O O O O Dipole polar molecules Attractive forces between dipole is a positive pole and negative pole Polar molecules have a higher boiling point then nonpolar substances Polar molecules have strong intermolecular attractions 0 O Induced dipole forces attractions between substances with nonpolar molecules also called dispersion factors London forces London dispersion forces Result of shifting electron clouds within molecules Temporary dipole electron movement in molecules causes a connection that is temporary on one side of the molecules when those dipoles exists a weak attraction between them strength of induced dipole forces depends on the ease of electorn distribution causing polarized molecules large molecules are more easily polarized because more electrons 0 also heavier I intermolecular forces increase with increasing molar mass 00000 O Stronger than ordinary dipole forces Always have hydrogen bonded to oxygen uorine and nitrogen Hydrogen and nitrogen oxygen and uorine are all strongly polar bonds Electron pair shifted away form hydroge positive charge Hydrogen bond extra strong attraction between molecules that occur because of hydrogen bonds Intermolecular bond bond between different molecules Hydrogen bond stronger then dipole dipole forces 1 10 as strong as covalent bond between 2 same elements Hydrogen bonds strongest of all intermolecular forces Induced dipole forces present between all molecules though sometimes more present than others 333 What forces Determine Solubility O Solubility depends on intermolecular forces at particulate level Forces between molecules of A are about the same as forces between molecules of B A and B will dissolve each other Like dissolves like Week 12 Chem 141 Prof Cracolice 0 Have major effect on solubility O Solubility of a gas solute I direct proportionality to partial pressure of gas over a surface 0 Partial pressure more the total pressure affects the solubility of a gas Pressure has little to no effect on solubility Maj or in uence Solubility increases With rising temperature With a few exceptions Solubility of gases in liquids lower at higher temperatures Explanation through energy changes O 0000


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