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Weekly Notes

by: Qihua Wu

Weekly Notes TPHIL 250

Qihua Wu
University of Washington Tacoma

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About this Document

This week of notes include fallacies, both the formal ones we learned before and the informal ones.
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Qihua Wu on Monday November 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to TPHIL 250 at University of Washington Tacoma taught by GEE,JERAMY S. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see PRACTICAL REASONING (I&S,QSR) in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Washington Tacoma.

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Date Created: 11/23/15
Fallacies: Formal Fallacies: The main feature of these are that the conclusion does not follow the premises and affect deductive reasoning, example of these are undistributed middle, affirming the consequent, denying the antecedent etc. Informal Fallacies: Can occur in both deductive and inductive reasoning. Red herring: distracts the audience from the real issue by introducing irrelevant things into the discussion. Some features of this are no connection between the parts, no argument being addressed, and the condition of giving issue has no reason to the issue it is trying to address. Ad Hominem: Circumstantial: based on the circumstance of someone, it is a fallacy because by saying the circumstance of a person does not provide real premise to the issue that is being addressed. Abusive: intentionally harming one. Tu quo que: by saying you are doing this too does not justify the issue. Poisoning the well: if you are doing this, then you are as bad as this person. Attacking on someone but is not an ad hominem tends to attacking on someone’s testimony, this is tricky because it would not be a fallacy if it is used in the right situation. Appeal to authority: Appeal to wrong authority: like celebrities. Appeal to authority is inappropriate if it is not needed, the authority is not an expert, or if the expert’s opinion is not supported by the rest experts. Appeal to consequences: Tend to trick you into bad reasonings. Appeal to force, meaning the arguer might cause bad consequences if not agreed. An appeal to consequence is not a fallacy is the belief is relative to the truth of the consequence. Straw Man (form of red herrings): Setting up an argument that does not well-defended the argument, then claim did. Usually over simplified the issue. Appeal to Ignorance: fallacy of presumption: just because I do not know about him, there fore, he does not exist.


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