Chapter 12: Media
Chapter 12: Media PSYC-3390-01
Popular in Adolescent Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Mirabella on Monday November 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-3390-01 at Tulane University taught by Fabian, Melinda in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 11/23/15
Chapter 12 Media If one or two people out of a million who watch a particular movie or listen to a particular song are negatively affected by it is that reason enough to ban or withdraw the movie or song Or should people even adolescents be responsible for how they respond to media Example 1993 The Program Disney players amp coach of football program one player demonstrates manly toughness by lying in the middle of the street on a busy road adolescent in PA tried it and got killed Disney recalled the movie MEDIA amp YOUNG PEOPLE S DEVELOPMENT AMERICAN ADOLESCENTS 9 Music 4 hoursday 9 TV 2 hoursday 9 Over 70 have a TV in their bedroom 9 70 of adolescent girls report regular magazine reading 9 Over 90 have access to computers both at home amp school 9 75 own a digital device w intemet access American adolescents spend about 7 hours per day using media What are the potential effects of media on this age group 0 Drugs Unsafe sex Aggressive amp violent behavior 0 Stereotyped gender beliefs Eating disorders 0 Declining social skills Social isolation THEORIES OF MEDIA INFLUENCE I Cultivation Theory a Watching television gradually shapes a person s worldview to eventually resemble the worldview most frequently depicted on TV b Mean World Syndrome the more TV we watch the more we believe the world is a dangerous place c When we watch television shows and movies everyone is having sex all the time whenever wherever nocommitment relationships no one talks about contraception or STDs 9 huge in uence on adolescents II Social Learning Theory a Vicarious learning models perform behaviors that are rewarded b I watch a TV show where kid in school made fun of nerd all friends laughed and they all like the bully now 9 someone ELSE reinforced for the behavior therefore I M going to do that 9 Both depict the media consumer as relatively passive media acting ON the consumer a one way arrow how media changes ME III Uses and Grati cations Approach a Uses What sort of uses motivate young people to watch a TV show go to a movie listen to a song read a magazine or use the Internet b Grati cations What sort of gratifications or satisfactions do they receive from the media they choose c 2 Key Principles i People differ in numerous ways that lead them to choose different media ex not everyone enjoys watching violent horror movies ii People consuming the same media product will respond to it in a variety of ways depending on their individual characteristics MEDIA PRACTICE MODEL IDENTITY incorporation resistance evaluation interpretation J INTERACTION gt IDENTITY 9 motivation 9 SELECTION 9 attention 9 INTERACTION 9 evaluationinterpretation 9 APPLICATION 9 incorporationresistance 9 Each adolescent s identity motivates the selection of media products Paying attention to certain media products leads to interaction with those products evaluation interpretation Adolescents engage in application of the media content they may incorporate this content into their identities 5 USES OF MEDIA BY ADOLECSENTS Why is it that PhySical 1 Entertainment appearance amp relationships are virtually the only topics 2 Identity Formation in magazines read by a Ideal selves to emulate feared selves to avoid adolescent girls but these b Gender role identity topics scarcely exist in c Sexual scripts romantic scripts magazmes read by 3 High Sensation adolescent boys a High sensory and emotional intensity of certain music lms games 4 Coping a Relieve stress and negative emotions 5 Youth Culture Identi cation MEDIA amp ADOLESCENT SOCIALIZATION 9 Parents in uence on socialization is receding while the role of the media in socialization grows Important identity related aspects of socialization developing values amp beliefs learning gender roles occupational preparation Broad socialization freedom of speech diverse media offerings uncensored Despite age restrictions most adolescents can access the media they want Media is marketdriven goal is to make money not to promote successful socialization like other socializing agents Adolescents have greater control over this socialization source 0 As opposed to the lack of control over parents in uence Dif cult for parents to enforce restrictions on media Media may function as a super peer providing information e g about sexuality Some media content and uses are rebellious to parents society but not all CONTROVERSIAL MEDIA TELEVISION amp AGGRESSIVENESS 9 The overwhelming majority of violent crimes all over the world are committed by young males aged 15 to 25 Violent television and adolescents violent behaviors are correlated Aggressive adolescents prefer aggressive TV programs Longitudinal studies have provided some evidence that violent television CAUSES aggression in children 0 TV inspired a lot of imitative behavior in children children are more imitative than adolescents o Adolescents can re ect on what they are watching and decide whether to model the behavior or not 0 But it may be a causal factor for adolescents already at risk for violence Stronger evidence TV violence in uences adolescents attitudes toward violence 0 More accepting of violent behavior less empathic toward victims of violence CONTROVERSIAL MEDIA ELECTRONIC GAMES amp AGGRESSIVENESS Most American adolescents have play electronic games some harmless entertainment many of the most popular ones make the most salesmoney are violent Active roleplaying Report experiencing fantasies of power and fame competitions explore exciting new situations stress release Violent games related to heightened aggressiveness hostility anxiety and may cause aggressive behavior BUT individuals already at risk for violent behavior are most likely to be affected by and attracted to the violent games Desensitization to violence attitudes empathy CONTROVERSIAL MEDIA TELEVISION amp MOVIES amp SEX Boys will be boys and girls better be prepared Most TV shows watched by American adolescents contain sexual content talkbehavior Typically no discussion of sexual risks or responsibilities recreational orientation toward sex Strong gender stereotypes Through TVmovies adolescents learn 0 Beliefs about malefemale roles in sexual interactions 0 What is considered physically attractive 0 Appropriate sexual scripts what to do what s expected of me May be related to more permissive attitudes about sex Pornographic movies that portray sexual aggression as pleasurable for the victim increase the acceptance of the use of coercion in sexual relations CONTROVERSIAL MEDIA MUSIC RapHipHop 0 Some of it has controversial themes sexual exploitation of women violence racism 0 Sexuality as a man s successful assertion of power over a woman 0 May reinforce racial stereotypes depict Black men as violent womenhating and sexobsessed 0 Most popular among adolescents who have high rates of risk behavior only correlation 0 Some rap has positive messages Heavy Metal 0 Some of it has very violent themes 0 Heavy metal fans tend to have a dark view of the world alienated from mainstream society 0 They also tend to be more reckless than other adolescents 0 May listen to the music to destress distract from or calm anger CONTROVERSIAL ADVERTISING THE MARLBORO MAN amp FRIENDS 90 of smokers begin smoking by age 18 o If you ve made it to early 20s and you re not a smoker high chance that you ll never be a smoker Age range when smoked initiation is most likely 1417 Cigarette advertising campaigns have been directed at adolescents and have proven to be quite effective in in uencing them to smoke Tobacco advertising as well as cigarette smoking among young people has declined in recent years now targeting developing countries NEW MEDIA THE INTERNET 94 of adolescents from high SES families have a computer at home but so do nearly 90 of low SES families and nearly all have an Internet connection Highest of Internet use in adolescents and young adulthood Purposes of Internet use 0 Girls more likely to use it for social purposes boys for games amp downloading music 0 But gender differences are not large A positive or negative in uence 0 Depends on what the content is amp how it is used 0 Online victimization sexual predators I l in 5 adolescents reported receiving a sexual solicitation request for sex or sexual information 0 Academic cheating 0 Social interactions relationships I For most the intemet is more likely to relieve social isolation amp promote social connections I If used to replace social interactions that might be a problem 0 Finding likeminded others At what age are we able to determine good from bad on the intemet SOCIAL NETWORKING WEBSITES 2010 rates of use 73 among 13 to l7yearolds 72 among 18 to 29yearolds Profiles are an arena for identity presentation expressions of self Adolescents and emerging adults use the sites mainly to keep in touch with friends and make new friends BLOGS A public intemet journal a personal account of their lives 27 of adolescents have created their own blog about half of adolescents read others blogs Content daily activities interactions with friends or family members romantic relationships 0 Can be a way to get information about sex clothes makeup etc Can connect to other blogs post comments MOBILE PHONES amp TEXTING US 2010 69 of l l to 14yearolds and 85 of 15 to 18yearolds own a mobile phone Texting quiet quick don t have to go through the niceties of greetings less social pressure 0 Are adolescents developing formal conversational skills at all Constant contact the world of friends can be a constant presence Similar trends in other developed countries 0 Media is in uencing around the world as well MEDIA amp GLOBALIZATION Adolescents around the world are increasingly familiar with the same TV shows movies music In developing countries social and economic change has been extremely rapid in the past 50 years Young people growing up with Western media parents grandparents not familiar with it and competes with the songsart of local culture Western media amp gender relations gender roles o Eg marry for love not arranged young women in professional occupations and unashamed of their sexuality outward displays of affection 0 Leading to a desire for more autonomy more variety in heterosexual interactions more choice of a job amp mate I Adolescents in Western TV shows and movies always argue with parents go against what parents say Western media amp physical appearance body weight 0 You should be really skinny Right now in most places local media are coexisting with American media 0 Could lead adolescents to reject what their parents want for them 0 Depends on the adolescent though
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