Week 14 notes
Week 14 notes CHEM 120
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Pike on Monday November 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 120 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dr. Darwin Dahl in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see College Chemistry I in Chemistry at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 11/23/15
Chem 120 notes Week 14 Review session is scheduled for Tuesday December 1 The formal charge of an atom is calculated by counting a lone pair for 2 and a bonding pair for 1 For an atom with a formal charge of 0 the charge equals the charge from the nucleus When multiple Lewis structures can be drawn for a molecule the correct Lewis structure is the one in which the atoms have the smallest formal charges When multiple Lewis structures with the same formal charges can be drawn for a molecule the most electronegative atom should have the negative charge or the most electropositive atom should have the positive charge etc Exceptions to the octet rule Hydrogen and helium only have two electrons in their outermost shell Alkali and alkali earth metals do not have enough electrons in their valence shell to form enough bonds to ll an octet Instead they form bonds with the valence electrons that they have and they do not have full octets This same situation can happen for MA elements such as boron Molecules with a principle quantum number greater than 2 can form extra bonds on account of the dorbital Example sulfur hexa uoride Molecules involving noble gases typically break the octet rule on account of the noble gas already having a full octet The noble gas will have extra electron pairs If the noble gas has a dsubshell the extra pairs are not a problem Argon krypton xenon and radon can form bonds Helium and neon CANNOT form bonds because they do not have a dshell Molecules with odd numbers of electrons break the octet rule Example nitrogen monoxide Nitrogen and oxygen are doublebonded together oxygen has two pairs of nonbonding electrons nitrogen has a nonbonding pair and a lone electron The delta H for a reaction can be calculated by subtracting the energy of all of the bonds of the products from the energy of all of the bonds of the reactants
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