NHM 101 Notes- Week 14
NHM 101 Notes- Week 14 NHM 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Monday November 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Libo Tan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Intro Human Nutrition in Environmental Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 11/23/15
Life Cycle Nutrition Percent of women ages 1544 with impaired fecundity 11 Infertility issues apply to both men and women Sperm numbers and viability decrease after age 35 More than half of all pregnancies are unplanned Children born to women over 35 are more likely to have disorders related to chromosomal defects 20 of pregnancies result in miscarriage Nutrition Prior to Pregnancy Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight An adequate and balanced diet Be physically active Preconception care Manage chronic conditions Avoid harmful substances During pregnancy the development of each organ and tissue has its own critical 1 oTimes of intense development and rapid cell division The development of each organtissue is most vulnerable to adverse effects such as nutrient deficiencies during its own critical period Neural tube Structure that becomes the brain and the spinal cord Neural tube defect Critical period 1730 days gestation Folate supplement 1 month before conception and continued throughout the first trimester Weight Preconception healthy body weight Weight Gain during pregnancy Fetal growth and maternal health depend on a sufficient weight gain during pregnancy vRecommended weight gains during pregnancy Underweight 2840 lbs Normal weight 2535 lbs Overweight 1525 lbs Obese 1120 lbs vWeightgain patterns First trimester 24 lbs total Second and third trimester 1 lb per week Energy olst trimester Okcal d 02nd trimester 340 kcald 03rd trimester 450 kcald vNutrient dense food wholegrain breads and cereals legumes dark green leafy vegetables citrus fruits lowfat milk lean meats fish poultry and eggs 340 additional kcals 1 cup of vanilla lowfat yogurt with one ounce of almonds 450 additional kcals Peanut butter and banana sandwich Protein o25 gd Longchain omega3 and omega6 Fatty Acids oGrowth function and structure of brain Folate vitamin BlZ iron and zinc oDNA synthesis cell divison and blood production Vitamin D Ca P Mg and Fluoride oBone development Harmful Alcohol and other drugs No more than 12 oz fishseafood per week Avoid Shark swordfish king mackerel high in mercury Excessive vitamin A intake Foods containing infectious microbes Limit caffeine 0A cup of coffee a day Concerns Nausea and Vomiting Constipation and hemorrhoids Heartburn Food cravings and aversions Nonfood cravings pica Lactation AAP Recommendation 1 year or longer oExclusive for first 6 months oBreastfeeding with complementary foods for at least 1 year 75 of women attempt breastfeeding 25 of newborns are given formula in their first 2 days of life Exclusive breastfeeding for first 6 months 16 Only 22 make it through the first year Barriers Lack of knowledge Embarrassment Lack of support from family and friends Time constraints Concerns about diet and health Health care provider misinformation oDisruptive hospital policies ex sent home with formula oInadequate health care provider lactation management training Benefits Hormonal Suppression of ovulation and menstruation Physical Reduced risk of breast and ovarian cancers type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis Increase energy expenditure which may contribute to weight loss Psychosocial May lower risk of postpartum depression Fosters maternalinfant bonding Nutritional Benefits oHuman milk exactly matches infant needs Immunological Protection oFight disease and protects infants from acute illnesses Allergy and Chronic Disease Protection Lower infant mortality rates in developing countries Cognitive benefits Nutrition During Lactation Energy for mother 500 additional kcals per day Increase Carbohydrates Vitamin D Supplementation needed if exclusively breastfed Water 13 cups of waterbeverages per day