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Week 3

by: Haley Ruhe

Week 3 PHIL 150A1

Haley Ruhe
GPA 3.1
Philosophical Perspectives on the Individual
Shaun Nichols

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About this Document

Philosophical Perspectives on the Individual
Shaun Nichols
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Ruhe on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Shaun Nichols in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Philosophical Perspectives on the Individual in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Arizona.

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Date Created: 01/30/15
01302015 Freud on Religion 0 Never attempts to prove religious beliefs are false Argues that beliefs are not justi ed but rather based on what we want to believe 0 Claims religion is an illusion based on wishful thinking not false ideas Genealogy of religion historical development 0 Goal I chart the origin of religion 0 Stage 1 people born into a cruel world so they personify evil forces 0 Illness evil spirit in one s body 0 Stage 2 l science gradually replaces personi ed forces 0 God offers relief 0 Stage 3 l divine intervention now miracles 0 Religion becomes rewarding good deeds amp punishing bad deeds Character of religious beliefs 0 Religious beliefs developed to appeal to our psychological wants 0 2 factors 0 divine justice escape from death l we believe in compensation because that s what we WANT o monotheism l we have a longing for a father gure our earthly fathers aren t good enough so we imagine a better one Religion amp reason 0 Do people believe in religion for good reasons 0 3 foundations for religious beliefs most common responses 0 ancestors believed them 0 there s proof 0 it is forbidden to question conclusion l religious beliefs not based on reason Religion on wish ful llment oCommon explanations for religious beliefs are illogical so there must be something going on psychologically oTherefore religious beliefs are illusions 0 Wish ful llment theory l strength in religion lies in the strength of the wish 0 A belief is an illusion if 0 The product of our wishes 0 Not based on rational grounds 0 A belief is a delusion if 0 It s the result of wishful thinking 0 It s false 0 A belief is an error if it s false Freud amp genetic arguments Genetic fallacy I the false argument that a belief is false if it has unsupported origins o Freud does not commit this fallacy o But he does say that this theory should undermine our con dence in our beliefs if we recognize the basis of our religious beliefs then our attitudes may change oFreud s genetic argument o if the basis for one s belief is foolish then the belief is unjusti ed Freud Lack of Warrant Argument 1 beliefs arise from wish ful llment they satisfy our desires 2 beliefs that arise from wish ful llment are not rationally warranted they are wishful thinking 3 therefore religious beliefs are not rationally warranted Plantinga on lack of warrant argument oAgrees that argument is valid if premises are true but he challenges both premises 0 Premise 1 no evidence as to how beliefs arise hard to gure out basis of beliefs not wish ful llment because there are many downsides to religion 0 Premise 2 Freud needs to prove that if a belief arises from wish ful llment that it is unreliable cause wish ful llment is not always unreliable What if god gives us the desire that cause wish ful llment o Premise 3 Freud offers no argumentsproof that the reasons people establish their beliefs are not aimed at the truth


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