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Week of Nov. 16 GEOG notes

by: SophieSol

Week of Nov. 16 GEOG notes GEOG 1003

Marketplace > George Washington University > Geography > GEOG 1003 > Week of Nov 16 GEOG notes
GPA 3.92
Society and Environment
Rain, D

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About this Document

Here are my notes from the week of November 16th for GEOG!
Society and Environment
Rain, D
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Society and Environment

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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by SophieSol on Monday November 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1003 at George Washington University taught by Rain, D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Society and Environment in Geography at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 11/23/15
Strategies 0 Trailer A Fierce Green Fire 0 About actions of environmentalists 0 Environmental Movements vs Science Environmentalism a social movement that seeks to in uence the political process by lobbying activism and education to protect natural resources and ecosystems term coined in 1922 Has advanced and has hurt environmental protections 0 Alternative view Humans have interacted with the environment over time and space Resources have been conceptualized Access to the commons wilderness and home have been regulated through institutions 0 The idea of a frontier 0 De ned traditionally as a boundary or the edge of a region of settled area 0 Usage in North American history Where it is what happens all about quotlooking west and teaming with resourcesquot 0 This mindset guided people through the 19th century 0 The era of US Frontier expansion Lasted 300 years from the arrival of European settlers to the end of the 19th Century Think about the roles of some of the early US heroes in science Franklin and exploration Washington Jefferson Lewis amp Clark 0 First president was a surveyor War debt need to sell off land for development and settlement 0 Enter US Land Survey 0 Carved up land to give away with various technologies Gunter s chain 0 22 yards long 66 feet 0 80 chains for 1 mile measuring an area 10 chains by 10 chains by 10 chains 10 acres of land within this area 0 one acre could be worked on by a team of oxen in one day 0 10 chains 1 furlong o 480 chains 1 township The Sextant Used to measure directions and to check position against sun and polestar Use with a compass and axmen Insert peg 0 Created a system of private land Follows same rules of laying out property lines Sectioned off gets sold or given 0 Beginning with Ohio set aside for Revolutionary War vets Pre1900 perceptions of the environment Abundant unclaimed resources of land lnexhaustible resources 0 Need to use and pro t from the new land immediately 0 Termed the quotmyth of superabundancequot is this really a myth o Attitude was one of unlimited potential there was always more land more animals more resources 0 Optimism carries consequences though Manifest Destiny 18405 0 Mission to extend the quotboundaries of freedomquot to others by imparting our idealism and belief in democratic institutions to those who were capable of self government Excluded those people who were perceived as being incapable of selfgovernment such as Na39ive American people and those of nonEuropean origin 0 Instruments 0 Conestoga wagon 18005 pulled by horses owned by one family Transformation of resources followed the expansion of the frontier and the exploration and acquisition of new territory Accumulation and distribution of public lands 0 Le Gadsden in the west 0 Parts of these lands became important conservation areas 0 By 1850 80 of US territory was federally owned taken from lndians Between 1850 and 1900 half of federal land given to railroads timber companies mining prospectors and universities homesteaders developers All driven by perception that resources are unlimited and need to come up with a way to quotgive them awayquot Resource policies major acts Homestead act 160 free acres to homesteaders if they improve the land to create a homestead meaning they cleared lands l land rushes 1862 Timber culture act gave 640 acres if 40were planted in forest promoted and supported cattle barons 1873 Desert Land act gave 640 acres if irrigated within 3 acres led land barons to make claims along rivers and near water holes 1877 Expansion was accelerated Development of transportation networks like canals and railroads 0 When railroads came along everything changed I Concept of time when train would come 0 Idea of local time when every town had their own idea of what time it was 0 Population growth 0 Change in technology 0 Exports and consumption growth The era was one of tremendous ecological transformation and degradation of previous state Speci c changes in land use Timber Cutting 0 Eastern US had been covered with trees used for shipbuilding building construction clearing land for agriculture 0 Idea of quottimber faminequot 0 Fall line sawmills where logs could no longer be oated in rivers from Maine to Carolinas a major industry of the time o Rail Fuel 1860 railroads used 3 million cords of wood Rail companies were given timber lands along their routes to supply their needs Fisheries O O 0 Grand banks off Newfoundland 10 million tons of cod shed off in 1700 Whaling was a huge activity Consequent creation of ports and shipbuilding facilities 0 Hunting and trapping O O 0 Fur trade beaver and fox led to rst whites into Indian country of the Rockies and Canada and great struggles over prime trapping regions later led to coopting of Indians Bison Hunting President Grant vetoed an effort to protect the buffalo in 1875 Passenger pigeon as an example of extinction 0 Agriculture 0 O 0 Problems associated with overuse of soil Tobacco in Maryland and Virginia nitrogen and potassium gone after 4 years which led to erosion and more land cleared then degraded PA Germans brought in by William Penn understood that organic material was necessary and rotated crops Great Plains homesteaders tore up praire grasslands and exposed the soil to wind erosion which led to severe erosion during droughts Belief of rain coming with such practices but the opposite happened Southwest cattle grazing overrazing led to arroyo creation and facilitated the Dust Bowl of the 19305 0 Mining coals metals oil 0 O O O O 1800 coal used for fuel and iron industry Early iron furnaces used wood and charcoal heavy impacts in PA anthracite region Open pits and drag lines Erosion and water pollution Story of Pittsburg 0 Early environmental efforts New thinking about resources came from a Vermont Congressman and diplomat George Perkins Marsh wrote Man and Nature George Perkins Marsh 0 3 things to know 0 He designed the Washington monument Frederick Jackson Turner 0 Limited options shaped who we are as Americans and how we shape the world Era of US frontier expansion 0 Closing of it Conservationismpreservationism o Conservative Roosevelt Antiquities act and repremation act 0 Pinchot was the rst person to get a forestry degree 0 Hetch Hetchy valley again Roosevelt and Pinchot wanted to build a dam muir was against it 19205 and 305 0 Industrial Poisons in the US First book to explore dangers of pollution New Deal Era 0 Creation of social security many things right afterduring great depression 0 Tennessee Valley Authority In charge of a lot of coal plantations The Dust Bowl 0 Grapes of Wrath 1940s and 505 o quotinbetween eraquot steel and aluminum SOs suburbanization Minamata japan 0 Fertilizer company named Nippon Chisso People started dying and having neurological problems Epilepsytype symptoms It was mercury poisoning In 1959 local shermen attacked the factory but it still ran for another 10 years 605805 0 air and water pollution 0 London smog NYC 0 Oil spil in santa Barbara 0 Cuyahoga river kept lighting on re Silent Spring Rachel carson o Pesticide pollution and birds Essentially talks about DDT and its impact on the environment got DDT baned by EPA in 1972 0 Radiation 0 During cold war a lot of nuclear tests and therefore a lot of waste Rocky ats in CO now closed 0 Push for more parks and wilderness protection 0 Notable technologies of the 20th century 0 Automobile 0 Nuclear power Failures discussed 0 Chainsaws Could sell more wood aided deforestation


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