HIST1020: 17th/18th Century Latin America, Russia's Empire, Primary Sources on Forced Labor and Absolutism
HIST1020: 17th/18th Century Latin America, Russia's Empire, Primary Sources on Forced Labor and Absolutism HIST 1020
Popular in World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Parsley on Monday November 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Aaron P Althouse (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800 in History at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 11/23/15
HIST1020 World Civilization II c 10001800 Althouse Monday 111615 17TH AND 18TH CENTURY LATIN AMERICA From New Mexico to Argentina Population is mixed and growing Colonies have a pattern of labor Tension Spain enlightened despotism new ideas on power colonies are pressured into forced labor and converting to Spanish ideas Society Top local elites Control society because they control the economymoney Control transatlantic trade invest in silver mines and land Middle people live daytoday Bottom huge class of poor people Native villages were scattered around the area near Spanish estates natives were employed to work on the estates Population diversity Spaniards Africans Natives of Latin America Tupac Amaru II Rebellion Andes Mountains Peru 1780s Poor relief alms Two Republic System 1500s idea of Spanish republics big cities and Indian republics villages in the countryside Spaniards and natives began having children together and it was unknown where these mixed people would fit in society African population is also unknown where to fit 1600s mixed population rising Sense of quotchaosquot from mixed population so class and order were established Spanish Caste System social hierarchy ladderranking based on your ancestry Brought from India to America Ranking of racial groups from the need of placing mixed population in orderly fashion Spaniards are placed on the top of the ladder African slaves were placed on the bottom along with native people who were commoners There39s a grey zone between Spaniards and Africans that is a mixture of everything Closer to the top is the Mestizo 12 Spaniard 12 Native Below Mestizo is the Mulatto 12 Spaniard 12 African Baroque Culture emphasis on status grandeur displays of wealth and power Wednesday 111815 RUSSIA FROM KINGDOM TO EMPIRE Development into an Empire Traditional vs modern Up to 1200s Russia39s most prominent citystate was Kiev 0 1200s late 1400s Mongols ruled Russia Kiev center of power Mongols controlled Russia from 1230s to late 1400s It was said that God sent the Mongols to conquer the Russians because they had done something wrong Late 1400s Moscow was liberated Princes of Moscow led Russian independence from Mongols 0 Ivan III The Great Ruled Moscow from 14621505 Freed Russia from Mongol oppression Used Cossacks to expand government rule state power and land ownership Cossacks peasant soldiers who fought in return for land and freedom Inspired by the Byzantine Empire that fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 Fashioned Russia as the quotnext Romequot Took the title of Tsar Russian form of Caesar Built a fort in Moscow called the Kremlin quotI get my authority directly from God so no one can question me The church supports mequot 0 Cements ties with Russian Orthodox Church Where the church goes state power follows and vice versa Boyars feudal aristocratic class in Russia Nobles from other citystates who are threatened by Moscow39s sudden rise to power Ivan IV The Terrible Ruled Moscow from 15331584 Lost parents as a youth so he inherited the throne too young His mother might have been poisoned by rival authorities Very religious and always alone possibly did drugs and becomes bitter and cruel as he ages bottles up bitterness and tortures animals as a youth When he was 16 he officially took the throne and was crowned in 1547 Planned coronation ceremony to illicit shock and awe in audience and frighten political rivals Married at 16 to Anastacia from a Boyar family cared deeply for her 1547 same year he was crowned and married there was a huge fire in Moscow Mobs came for him because they blamed him for the fires fire was God punishing him for his sins he publicly repented and promised to be a good ruler Created central group of advisors called the Chosen Council asked for their support to impose a new code of law Aimed to eliminate corruption within the Russian government let civilians vote for public officials occasionally 1533 became ill and made servants promise to put Dmitri on the throne when he died His servants denied his request because they thought he would die but he survived 1560 wife died suddenly so he suspected rivals or members of his chosen council had poisoned her Some advisors could not defend themselves so he labeled all of them as guilty along with their family members as well Two council members were put to death This caused over paranoia against the Boyars and the church Left Moscow for awhile until 1565 Got approval from nobles to create a new wing of government to snoop out traitorous activity and reward his friends Suspects of political rival were thrown into frying pans sometimes entire villages were tortured and killed It was unknown whether he was formally mentally ill or just paranoid 1581 in a fit of anger he struck his son on the head with his staff and lost his only heir 1584 died possibly by poisoning Time of Troubles 15981613 Outsiders invaded Russia Poland and Sweden Civil Wars within Russia 1610 Mikhail Romanov took control of Russia Limit Western European in uence but not cut it off entirely Germantown Walled portion of Moscow The only city in Russia that allowed Europeans to visit Peter I The Great Ruled 16821725 He was 6398quot and towered over his advisors athletic Selfeducated Pushed policy of modernization The Russians used what they wanted from Western European ideals but they did not adopt everything had a very selective use of European ideas Preferred the more relaxed style of living in Europe over the stuffy structured life in Russia Enjoyed naval forces and ocean travel technology Traveled to Europe in disguise to get ideas for modernizing Russia Russia s first Emperor Encouraged men to shave their beards but the church opposed this Women were not allowed in public often so he wanted elite women to be able to publicly mingle with men through parties and such gatherings Reforms Russian military better pay better training and more professional They answered directly to him Positions were based on merit Government streamlining enforcement of laws 0 Called himself a servant of the state Created training colleges for government officials Missions sent to Europe cultural reform 26 groups of Russians traveled to Europe over 1000 studied abroad Named an honorary member of the Paris Academy of Sciences Ordered a daily newspaper like Paris Vedomosti newspaper first published in 1702 Had official news on topics like military expansion It was popular at first but quickly faded in release As time continued they had between 714 newspapers per year Opened rst public museum Wanted to expose Russians to paintings of Dutch and Flemish masters Kunst Kamera museum sponsored by Peter I Free entry and refreshments to all Visitors Criticized Russian Orthodox Church St Petersburg crowned jewel of modernized Russia 1702 Became modern capital over Moscow and the Kremlin Built by brutal forced labor of Russian peasants 1720s 50000 residents Used European style architecture Included a zoo with an elephant and a polar bear but they both died Catherine 11 The Great 0 Ruled 176295 Role model was France encouraged people to travel to France and speak French invited Protestants who were kicked out of France to enter Russia France fell into a civil war French Revolution in 1789 this closes Russia to France again Absolutism reformation expand government power with small amounts of limited reform Focused on more modernization Friday 1 120 15 PRIMARY SOURCES FORCED LABOR Slave market in Brazil silver mining in Siberia and Bolivia slavery in Indonesia reindeer herding in Siberia etc Not all forced labor was coerced on slaves natives in Siberia were not allowed to be taken into slavery but they were still forced to do treacherous labor like mine Mercury Siberian natives were also forced to use reindeer to carry goods across the country for trading Rich people dressed nicely to attend slave markets and watch Slaves were felt viewed bought and treated as cattle ABSOLUTISM AND LOUIS XIV Louis XIV king of France who ruled with absolutism Divine right to rule Weakness Pride love of hearing others praise him center of attention proof of his absolutism Emphasis on a massive government The article mentions a large military with many generals Ministers government servants and bureaucrats Nobles used attery to persuade him to do what they want Left in a fountain outside when he was young Mediocre talents but kind character Built a huge palace in Versailles Focus on excess Showing government power with physical public spectacles Emphasis on improvement education and modernization PETER quotTHE GREATquot OF RUSSIA Primary source on this is not subject to testing