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BSC 116 Notes Week 14- Lecture 40

by: Alexia Acebo

BSC 116 Notes Week 14- Lecture 40 BSC 116

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 116 > BSC 116 Notes Week 14 Lecture 40
Alexia Acebo
GPA 3.7
Principles Biology II
Jennifer G. Howeth

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About this Document

A collection of notes for the fourteenth week of BSC 116, lecture 40!
Principles Biology II
Jennifer G. Howeth
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Monday November 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 116 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jennifer G. Howeth in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Principles Biology II in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 11/23/15
Lecture 40 Ecosystems Ecology oecosystem sum of biotic and abiotic interactions in an area ranges from microhabitat to whole earth two abiotic processes are central to ecosystem ecology ow of energy energy usually sunlight transformed to chemical energy by autotrophs all eventually lost as heat ycling of nutrients elements continually recycled move between ecosystems inputs eg minerals from dust amp rainwater nitrogen from N xation outputs eg gases lost to atmosphere water generally inoutputs small relative to amount recycled primary producers autotrophs eg plants oprimary consumers herbivores that eat producers osecondary consumers carnivores that eat herbivores otertiary consumers carnivores that eat carnivores detritivoresdecomposers get energy from detritus nonliving organic material convert organic molecules into inorganic forms that producers can use important for recycling nutrients oprimary production amount of light energy converted to chemical energy in a given span of time othere is a nite amount of energy available to ecosystems all of it results from 1 production tota sunlight to earth 1022 1 N m 0239 cal intensity varies with latitude minus the light that hits stuff that doesn t photosynthesize minus light of wavelengths not absorbed by photopigments ca 99 re ected lost as heat what s left available for 1 production 150000000000000 kg organic matter per year ogross primary production GPP total 1 production for an ecosystem onet primary production NPP part stored as organic matter NPP GPP respiration this is the energy available to higher trophic levels expressed as either energy Jm2yr or biomass gm2yr NOTE new biomass not the same as standing crop secondary production new biomass added to consumers amount of 1 production converted to consumer olight ultimately limits 1 production E plants had all the nutrients they needed photosynthesis limited only by light limiting nutrient if adding a nutrient increases productivity then it is limiting ie production is limited by it s availability eg phytoplankton production off Long Island N limited but not P limited eutrophication increased algal production due to pollution sewage fertilizer freshwater usually phosphorus limited results in drop in oxygen N amp P also limited in terrestrial environments that s the way fertilizer works terrestrial usually nitrogen limited onutrients cycle thru ecosystems biogeochemical cycles both biotic and abiotic inputsoutputs nutrients sometimes present but unavailable onutrients can be available or unavailable organic or inorganic othe 4 most important nutrient cycles g 5514 1H20 2C 3N 4P decomposition critical for cycling detritivores break down organic molecules to inorganic so they can be used by 1 producers rates depend upon production in detritivores faster in warm humid tropical forest most nutrients in living things 10 in soil temperate forest up to 50 in soil no detritivores no decomposition eg bottom of anoxic peat bog no decomposition farming removes N from soil when land is rst cleared it has N in soil quotfertilityquot varies with preagriculture habitat temperate grass land lots of soil lots of N that lasts decade tropical forest little soil little N lasts a few years crops grown removed N is removed N ends up somewhere else sewer new N must be added to get same yield fertilizer owe ve double the amount of N available to 1 production excess amount that exceeds critical load no longer limiting runs off into rivers added to sewage and other N waste eg extra N leads to algae blooms in Gulf of Mexico excess 1 leads to 02 depletion quotdead zonequot can be mitigated by using less fertilizer


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