Week 13 (Problem Solving Unit)
Week 13 (Problem Solving Unit) PSYC 2014
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Monday November 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2014 at George Washington University taught by Dopkins, S in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 11/23/15
Monday November 23 2015 Cognitive Psychology Multiple Choice Question 1118 Positive mood has been associated with all of the following except A successful problem solving B Functional fixedness C Dopamine D Cognitive flexibility Target Article 3 Discussion VVeaknesses Small sample size is a possible weakness But that doesn39t mean it isn39t viable There isn39t any one thing you have to say Theones Carried out in a certain intellectual framework He suggests to look in the book for this framework Doesn t need to be marked theory but just a discussion NOT CORRECT text discusses the reference principle doesn39t work very well here because it is something that applies to humans when they are learning Find just a general way of thinking about things in the text The test is seeing if the animals have a capacity for reference Interested in seeing if these animals have the capacity for reference not the training techniques This study is focusing on semantics to see if the chimps have the ability to use this Already known that the chimps do not have syntax or pragmatics Monday November 23 2015 Not known if they have the ability to associate an object with its category of function IV one of these is enough Get us away from focusing on the little unimportant things that they manipulated but instead look at the conceptual problem as a whole Why did they do the first three tasks What was being accomplished Why was it necessary Each task is slowly becoming more abstract and progressively building off of each task before it Previously there was always the object present in other research and this research was in order to see results when the object was not present Problem Solving Continued Problem Solving by Analogical Reasoning Way to solve problems without insight Thinking and seeing that you can solve a problem using what you previously know Tumor Problem Given a human being with an inoperable stomach tumor and rays that destroy organic tissue at sufficient intensity by what procedure can one free hm of the tumor by those rays and at the same time avoid destroying the healthy tissue that surrounds the tumor Asked the class and no one could solve this The Story of the General Problem A dictator ruled a small country from a strong fortress by Many roads led to the fortress through the countryside A rebel general vowed to capture the fortress The general knew that an attack by his entire army would capture the fortress He gathered his army at the head of one of the roads ready to launch an attack However the general then learned that the dictator had planted mines on each of the roads The mines were set so that small bodies of men could pass over them safely since the dictator needed to move his troops and workers to and from the fortress However any large force would detonate the mines Solve the problem the class solved this one Monday November 23 2015 But the general divided his army into small groups and dispatched each group down a different road Each group continued down its road to the fortress so that the entire army arrived at together at the fortress at the same time In this way the general captured the fortress Now try to solve the tumor problem the class could now solve it Reasoning by Analogy Extending the solution of a problem to another problem with an analogous structure ENIAC picture of this it was the first computer Developed right before WWII and right after WWII they began to use this for psychology Had them originally solving proofs and then solving problems Problem represented as problem space Starting state Goal state To solve problem use operators to transform starting state into goal state Tower of Hanoi Problem Classic problem explaining this Transfer disks to target peg Move one disk at a time Never place a larger disk on top of a smaller disk Operator only can move disc if you39re putting it on no disc or a larger disc Starting state 3 discs on one pole Goal state 3 discs on another pole HillClimbing DifferenceReduction Applying operators so as to reduce the difference between the current state and the goal state Monday November 23 2015 Chart your progress you are making by looking at the difference between current state and goal state If you are reducing the difference then you are making progress People have trouble solving a problem at points where the correct solution involves increasing the difference between the current state and the goal state Current state is becoming more different than the goal state than it was previously MeansEnd Analysis 1 Identify most important difference between current and goal state 2 If operator cannot be applied to reduce this difference create a subgoal to eliminate difference between current state and condition for applying desired operator Even though the subgoal is technically bringing you farther from the goal state Working Backward Envisioning the solution of the problem and the state that will occur immediately before the problem is solved Work backwards from the solution in order to solve the problem Example Problem which requires you to do this An ailing frog can hop but not swim In order to get to the other side of the lake the frog must hop from water lily to water lily Sadly there is only one water lily on the lake But the frog knows that the water lilies grow so fast that the amount of water surface covered by the lilies doubles every 24 hours He calculates that it will be 30 days when it is totally covered On what day will the lake be half covered Day 29 Because it doubles every day Example Problem need to cut lawn with either lawn mower or shears The lawn mower however is currently broke Optimizer This person always searches for optimal solution in solving a problem Monday November 23 2015 This person will probably repair the lawn mower Satisficer In solving a problem this person searchers for a solution that is sufficient without being optimal This person will probably just use the shears These people tend to be happier in their lives Had an extensive 15 minute discussion on which one is better which was completely pointless
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