FDNS Final Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Ochuko on Monday November 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FDNS 4050 at University of Georgia taught by Alex K. Anderson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.
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Date Created: 11/23/15
FDNS Final Notes 11182015 Unique Nutrition Issues in Older Adults 0 Anyone after the age of 65 is considered an older adult Introduction 0 The growing population of older adults and the continue increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases calls for solutions to reduce their burden 0 With age comes the increased risk of chronic disease which can affect the individual s ability to eat and metabolize and absorb nutrients from foods 0 Nutrition presents itself as a key part of the solution 0 Medication has an affect on eating and appetite Agerelated changes in physiology and metabolism affect all organ systems 0 Physiological changes that occur affect all organs in the body 0 Older adults are likely to face socioeconomic challenges that may impact their food security 0 Socioeconomic challenges due to retirement Most tend to be food insecure May have psychological and physiological problems that may impact their desire to eat AgeRelated Risks for Malnutrition Malnutrition tends to be common 0 Not necessarily severe de ciencies but micronutrient de ciencies are often present 0 When chewing becomes difficult it is incredibly hard to absorb the micronutrients in the food 0 Risks o Impaired appetite o Appetite assessment 0 Diet modi cation 0 Physiologicapsychosocia changes 0 Medication use Impaired Appetite Appetite is associated with wellbeing Many conditions can negatively affect appetite o Diminished appetite may lead to signi cant risks to overall health Appetite Assessment Declining food intake and anorexia are predictors for undernutrition in older adults 0 Early detection nutrition screening tools are very important 0 Meals eaten per day 0 Diet modi cation 0 Prescription drug use 0 Social interaction at mealtime Diet Modi cation 0 Both an unacceptable or unpalatable diet can lead to poor food and uid intake resulting in weight loss and undernutrition as well as negative health effects 0 Dietary modi cation based on health age or dietary intake Physiological Changes 0 quotAnorexia of agingquot Changes in GI tract Sensory oss Foodborne illness 0 Cognitive changes impaired cognition Alzheimer s Parkinson s cancer Psychosocial Changes 0 Nutrition risk is associated with economic hardship loneliness o Elderly nutrition programs 0 Medication use increased disease leads to increased medication use 0 Side effects of medications affect appetite and nutritional status Oral Health Problems 0 NHANES oral health is an increasing problem with age 0 Compounded by poor income status and lower education level Malnutrition Estimated that 40 of nursing home residents and 50 of hospitalized elderly patients are malnourished o Malnutrition any insufficient dietary intake of essential nutrients o Malnutrition proteinenergy undernutrition PEU Nutrient De cits Vitamin D for those institutionalized or homebound Thiamin poor intakes not increased need 0 Vitamin B6 agerelated changes related to the metabolism and absorption 0 Vitamin 812 due to pernicious anemia and gastritis o Fluid risk of dehydration Health problems 0 Cardiovascular disease 0 Peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular disease 0 Incontinence urinary fecal 0 Visual function Osteoporosis Special Considerations for Older Women 0 Long life expectancy 8194 years 0 Disease and disability increase with age Menopause and side effects risk for bone loss and heart disease Osteoporosis and hormone replacement therapy HRT Conditions Hypochlorhydria decreased acid in the stomach o Affects 812 and B6 absorption highly recommend the elderly to take 812 supplements Early satiety eating a little bit of food and feeling full food must be nutrient dense in order to compensate for little amount of food eaten 0 Dining environment Congregate Meal Program a meal where the elderly who live in a community by themselves will eat with other elderly people they can socialize with o This helps elderly with eating and boosting appetitemetabolism 0 Home delivery meals help boost appetite because they look forward to interacting with somebody else Physical Activity and Weight Management Guest Lecture The Five Components of Fitness Cardiorespiratory vascular endurance the ability of the CV system and lungs to sustain effort over time Muscular Strength the ability of muscles to work against resistance Muscular Endurance the ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly without becoming exhausted o Flexibility capacity ofjoints to move through a full range of motion 0 Body composition amount of bone muscle and fat tissue in the body CV Endurance Recommendations 0 Mode aerobic activity longer than 35 minutes 0 Frequency 5x per week 0 Duration For health 30 minutes For weight maintenance 60 minutes For weight loss 6090 minutes 0 Intensity 6090 of HR max or 5085 of HR reserve 0 Bene ts Burn calories weight lossmaintenance Reduce stress lmprove heart and lung function important for disease risk reduction and prevention Estimating Max HR and HRR Max HR 220 Age in years 0 Estimated maximal HR may be 510gt or lt than actual value 0 HRR Max HR Resting HR x Desired lntensity Resting HR Muscular Strength and Endurance Recommendations 0 Mode Anaerobic weights or body weight 810 exercises 812 reps for each exercise 0 Frequency 23x per week 0 Duration 3060 minutes 0 Intensity Strength 14 reps 46 sets rest 3 minutes between sets 24x per week Hypertrophy 812 reps 35 sets rest 3090 seconds between sets 46x per week Endurance 1220 reps 13 sets rest lt60 seconds between sets 2x per week 0 Bene ts Improve body composition increase lean muscle mass 0 Burn calories during rest increases RMR 0 Muscle balance leads to injury prevention 0 o O Improves bone density Improves heart function decrease BP improves cholesterol Important for disease risk reduction and prevention Flexibility o Improves range of motion at joints 0 Injury prevention 0 Increased blood supply nutrients to joints 0 Increased neuromuscular coordinationbalance 0 Tissue maintenance 0 Increased performance via increased efficiency Muscle balance and postural awareness Best done with warm muscles after CD Static stretching hold stretches for 1530 seconds 0 Frequency following every bout of exercise 0 Focus on total body stretching Body Composition 0 A discriminating indicator of body fatness o Expressed as body fat 0 Two compartment model 0 Fat mass Essential fat internal organs CNS bone marrow mammary glands and pelvic region a Men 35 Women 1214 Nonessential storage fat adipose tissue 0 Fatfree mass lean body mass Muscle connective tissue organ tissue water bone 0 Why use body composition instead of body weight 0 BMI based on height and weight is used to classify people into weight categories 0 However body fat percentage gives us better information about the health status of a person 0 O Bene ts of Exercise Weight Loss Weight gain prevention energy balance Weight loss Weight maintenance after weight loss Effective weight loss 0 Average American gains 12 lbs per year 0 3500 calories for 1 lb of fat 0 Recommended weight loss is 12 lbs per week Combination of diet and exercise should be used to lose 500 calsday to loss of 1 lb a week or 1000 calsday to loss of 2 lbs a week 0 Importance of losing fat not muscle body composition Mistake 0 The biggest mistake people tend to make is think they are burning a ton of calories with exercise and compensating that with overeating Take Home Message 0 Exercise alone for weight loss or weight management is a losing battle You will gain weight over time Your weight loss will be slowed and maybe stop altogether 0 However exercise is extremely healthy and can help us burn calories 0 Too much quotdamagequot can be done too quickly so focusing on healthy eating and watching caloric intake along with daily exercise is needed Facts Exercises for quotProblem Areasquot 0 Problem areas in females abdominal region hips thighs tdceps Problem areas for males abdominal region 0 There is no such thing as spot reducing strengthening the muscle in these areas will do nothing to remove the fat that is present 0 You CANNOT replace fat with muscle 0 Solution negative energy balance to lose body fat 0 Low Fat vs Low Carb 0 Why do low carb diets work It has nothing to do with the composition of the diet A negative energy balance occurs people eat less calories because they have to cut out or avoid so many foods 0 Studies that control caloric intake show that weight loss is the same for lowfat vs low carb diets Protein and Muscle 0 Eating more protein alone will not give you more muscle 0 You cannot store protein in the body Excess gets converted into fat and stored as adipose tissue fat tissue 0 Strength training must occur stimulus for protein synthesis 0 Protein intake should still never exceed 20gkg of body weight 0
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