Continued Judaism notes and Chapter 10 Islam Notes
Continued Judaism notes and Chapter 10 Islam Notes 102
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Bronge on Tuesday November 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 102 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Dr. Jeffrey Kaplan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see World Religions in Religious Studies at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Judaism Conceptual Material Continued 9 The Shekina o Feminine Aspect of God In ancient Judaism o Gentle the difference between the sun and the moon 0 Was carried in the Ark of the Covenant The single holiest spot in the temple According to tradition the Hebrews entered the Holy Land as 12 tribes Abraham originally called Abram probably lived sometime between 20001500 BC The average lifespan at that time would be midtwenties and a woman would be ten years younger He lived until 75 His father Terah was seen to have lived for 205 years he was born in the Chaldean Capital of Ur Rich part of the world The Hebrew Bible Old Testament To Jews the Bible is known as an instruction book Composed of 5 Books IMPORTANT They worship the Torah if damaged it will be seen as dead Judaism may seem ferocious on the outside Genesis Book of Creation Exodus Story ofJews in Egypt and arrival in Holy Land History Leviticus Laws Numbers More laws Deuteronomy More laws 613 Laws U PP NJ Covenant is the key word in Judaism Between God and the Jewish People Before the Jews were in Egypt Circumcision as the mark of the Covenant in the flesh Men have dominance hey set their covenant through men They see themselves as unique and alone people Hereditary Priesthood Solomon was the first man who built the Temple of Jerusalem In the center was the Shakina aspect of God recited in the temple Temple was destroyed The Second Temple Became the site for sacrifice and the center of the Jewish religious universe n Jewish Homes they have a Mazuza inside that box is a small scripture from the Torah In many ways that has come to replace the missing Shekina The second temple was then destroyed by the Romans after the Jewish revolt This was the time of the Sicarri Revolt and the mass suicide at Massada With the Fall of Massada and the destruction of the Second Temple came the Diaspora scattering The Third Temple Is a dream must be built on the same place as the second temple but already occupied by the Dome of the Rock When the third temple happens no Jewish man is able to do anything A Christian man could God will send the third temple himself Two Books of Judaism KNOW 1 Mishna a Teachings about each passage of the bible Appear about 200 AD Biblical Commentary 2 Talmud a Most important book used by Jewish Rabbis today The book ofJewish Law b Most difficult religious book to understand in the world Too many interpretations c Two Kinds i Babylonian ii Jerusalem The one used most often Judaism has changed more in the US in 200 years than it had in 2000 years elsewhere 0 Bar Son Mitzva has changed the most At the age of 13 the man will become a part of a Minyan Must have 10 men to start a congregation Women only celebrated marriage In Jewish law men getting this and women nothing seemed fine o In America Bat Daughter Mitzva I A ceremony made in America simply for women Now become popular she was wearing the same jacket males wear which is a new addition as well Immigration They were popular but excluded but the 1920s wave of Jewish Immigrants embarrassed German Jewish Citizens Ellis Island is where everyone entered Streams of Contemporary Judaism 1 Reform Judaism Rabbi Adapt Jewish law to American culture Mixed marriages accepted and sometimes performed No gender separation in worship families sit together Bat Mitzvas from 1960 s Women Rabbis not only train but actually hire them 09935 2 Conservative Judaism a Find middle way between Jewish Law and American culture Scholar on campus b Mixed marriages not accepted but tolerated by parents c Adapted slowly to gender separation d Rare few women rabbis Bat Mitzvahs common for this in 1970 s 3 Orthodox Judaism be as Jewish as Tradition was Abraham a No Compromise with American Culture b Only recognized for ofJudaism in Israel If an American moved to Israel and was American compromised they are considered non Jewish c Reject Mixed Marriage d Gender Separation in Worship e No women Rabbis or Bat Mitzvahs 4 HassidismUltraOrthodox Extremely conservative and antimodern a Very separate from American Culture lives in enclaves b No compromise on Jewish Law c Governed by rabbinical authority in every phase of life Tells what to do Rabbi Schneerson was believed to be the Messiah d No Bat Mitzvah or women rabbis can t touch women on period When done they go to Mikva they make sure they are clean 5 ReconstructionistJews a Smallest groups They want American Judaism to be provable Created the bat Mitzva Islamic Notes Chapter 10 The Life and Teachings of Muhammad Muhammad was born in Mecca which is Saudi Arabia today Muslims sacred book is known as the Qur an Before Islam Arose the religions of the Arabian Peninsula were Judaism Christianity and Zoroastricism and traditional local practices The Kabah Cube is a shrine that 360 religious images of tribal gods and goddesses As Muhammad got older he got married to Khadijah having six children in the process Muslims viewed Muhammad as a man who showed perfection in his life and they revere him as an ideal human being a model for all believers Essentials of Islam Islam literally means surrender or submission They refer to God as quotAllahquot Allah has no gender 5 Pillars of Islam 1 Creed Shahadah a There is no god but Allah Muhammad is a messenger The simplicity of their creed is in deliberate contrast to the complicated creeds of Christianity Reject the view of God being seen as divine which opposes the view of Christians 2 Prayer Salat a Pay five times a day Before dawn and at midday afternoon sunset and nighttime b Before prayer they are expected to perform a ritual purification with water washing the hands arms face neck and feet If water is not available they may use sand c When praying it must be facing Mecca Friday is the day of Public prayer 3 Charity to the Poor Zakat a Believers donate certain percentages of their total income herds and produce from fields and orchards each year to the poor 4 Fasting During Ramadam Sawm a The purpose of fasting is to discipline oneself to develop sympathy for the poor and hungry and to give to others what would have eaten b Ramadam the ninth month of the Muslim Calendar is the period during which Muhammad first received his revelations c Muslims avoid all food liquid tobacco and sex from dawn until dusk 5 Pilgrimage to Mecca Hajj a All Muslims both men and women unless prevented by poverty or sickness are expected to visit Mecca at least once in their lifetime Additional Islamic Religious Practices Islam aims at providing patterns for ideal living Increase Social order and happiness Muslims do not value celibacy Muhammed was no celibate and opposed celibacy as being unnatural Dietary Restrictions Forbids the consumption of pork and wine Prohibition against Usury and Gambling Changing interest on loans is not allowed Gambling is forbidden because it is seen as dangerous and waste of time and money as well as potential risk for gamblers and families Circumcision Male circumcision is a religious requirement in Islam although it is not actually demanded in the Qur an In some primarily Muslim countries particularly those in eastern Africa Muslim girls are also circumcised at puberty Helping decrease sexual desires Marriage Marriage is seen as a civil contract marriage is usually arranged by the parents and formalized by a written contract Death Rituals Regulations for when a funeral happens buried in certain colors and facing a certain way towards Mecca Scripture The Qur an Qur an means quotrecitationquot only the Arabic version is considered to be fully authoritative Seen as God s word and was revealed to Muhammed to preach A body of sermons and utterances that repeats images and themes in a natural way The Qur an has 114 chapters or suras The order of the suras does not reflect the exact order in which they were revealed except for the first Historical Development of Islam Muhammed died without a clear hereditary male successor since his son died in infancy He reached out to Abu Bakr his friend and the father of his youngest wife to be the principal leader of prayer Because of his development He was recognized as the first caliph The second caliph became Umar after Abu Bakr died Third was Uthman and fourth was Muhammed s cousin and son in law Ali The earliest stage of growth of Islam came during the time of the first four rulers called the orthodox caliphs Expansion and Consolidation The weakness of the Byzantine and Persian Empires and what Muslims believe was divine purposehelped Islam quickly expand into their territories Because of the great size Islamic territory had becomecompletely centralized control was impossible The Shiite and Sunni Division within Islam Islam has experienced several divisions The most significant division is between the Shiites and Sunnis Today about 1015 percent of Islam is Shiite and remaining is Sunni These divisions began as a political argument over who should succeed Muhammed Shiite Islam Shiites derive their name from the word shia which means quotfaction namely the group followed by Ali They trace Muhammad s line of succession from Ali to Hussein see Hussein as a martyr whose heroic death is a redeeming sacrifice that invites imitation Most Shiites believe that a Godgiven hereditary spiritual power called the Light of Muhammed has been passed to a total of twelve successors or Imama For them the first legitimate Imam was Ali Iran is the center of Shiite Islam because of its large Shiite population but Iraq is the spiritual home because of the connection was Hussein Sunni Islam Emerged from the word tradition The name refers to the entire body of traditional teachings that are based on the life and teachings of Muhammad as given in the Qur an and the authoritative hadiths Differing from Shiite Sunni does not have specific clear divisions There are two important ones though Wahhabi a conservative movement The second is Deobandi it is the emphasis on a simplified Islam Makes up about 90 of all Muslimsmany are called quotcultural Muslims They were born into the faith and decide what to follow Two central places of power are Saudi Arabia Since Mecca is located here another is Egypt Sufism Islamic Mysticism Sufism is the name of an old widespread devotional movementor group of movementsin Islam A religious movement that values deliberate simplicity quotHeart of Islam Suri Beliefs The core of the Sufi movement is its mysticismits belief that the highest experience a person can have is a direct experience of God AlGhazali and Sufi Brotherhoods Conflicts were settled by the life and work of the scholar AlGhazali He blended Sufism with traditional practice His orders spread and emerged widely Sufi Practice and Poetry Sufism has incorporated many techniques to encourage spiritual insight some possibly derived from Hindu yoga or from Christian monastic practice in the Near East Used certain breathing techniques or even types of poetry just to enhance the belief system even more Until a few decades ago only one Muslim poet was well known in Englishspeaking countries Omar Khayyam who gained fame from a long poem called The Rubaiyat Islamic Law and Philosophy Islamic thought focuses on both practice and belief Muslims decide how to interpret the Qur an in their own way Islamic Law and Legal Institutions Islamic law called Sharia is the entire body of laws that guides the believer in this life The traditional Islamic ideal however does not separate religious and secular spheres and this ideal is still an intense argument in strongly Muslim countries today Islamic Philosophy and Theology In theory there is a difference between philosophy and theology Philosophy considers all questions by the light of reason alone without making use of religious revelation Theology however mixes philosophy and religion In general there have been two philosophical poles within Islam The more liberal view values reason and maintains that everything can be examined intellectually The other more conservative view is suspicious of reason it values intellectual submission believing that God nor anything else can be explained fully by reason Islam and the Arts Architecture The greatest art form is Islam is its architecture The Mosque place of public prayer is a place taken seriously with its beautiful features Shoes must be taken off and left outside there is at least one formal entry to the compound Since they are usually in dry climates they have open courtyards Balance is another important feature especially with its use of color arches walkways etc Fine Art Islam has a rich tradition of pictorial art The image of paradise is the most symbolic form of their prayer carpet Islam and the Modern World Islam is being pulled in many directions and life presents great challenges to traditional Islam Islam and Contemporary Life Islam became and remained a world power for 800 years Toward the end of the fifteenth century the Pendulum of power swung in the opposite direction Western Europe began to expand its control The industrial world s growing dependence on oilmuch of it from predominantly Islamic nationshas created a new shift in economic and cultural balance Islam and Roles of Women Recent decades have seen increased focus on roles of women Certain beliefs remain in the same area as not allowing women to have the same qualities as men but Muhammed never stated any of those things for women Today women have been advancing more than ever and started rebelling from some expectations of men in society They want to be equal and will continuously keep fighting 457466 pages more on Modern Islamic traditions but we never really go over those much in class so I didn t think they would be needed for these notes