Chapter 9 Notes
Chapter 9 Notes NTR 213-05
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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Weathers on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTR 213-05 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Laurie H. Allen in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introductory Nutrition in Environmental Science at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
5-10% 60 -75% 15-30% Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Lowest rate of energy expenditure. Amount of calories your body burns at rest; energy needed for essential body functions Calculated from oxygen consumption measured over a 6 to 12 minute period 12 hr fast & rested quietly for 30 minutes in a thermally neutral environment True BMR occurs in early morning hours of deep sleep - impractical to study Resting Metabolic Rate usually used to estimate calorie needs 60-75% of total energy expenditure Basal Metabolism NOTE: these factors affect Resting Metabolic rate as well Physical Activity 15-30% of total energy expenditure Includes: Planned & daily activities Walking, yard work, work-related activities, fidgeting Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT): energy expended for everything that is not sleeping, eating, or sports-like exercise NOTE: exercising can raise your metabolic rate overall, not just for a few hours during/after exercising Thermic Effect of Food Energy required for the digestion, absorption, storage and/or disposal of ingested food 5-10% of total energy expenditure Techniques for Measuring Energy Expenditure Estimation using Equations Direct Calorimetry Method: measures body’s heat output Walls contain layer of water Chamber measures heat expelled by radiation, convection, evaporation 30 diff measurements monitored Highly accurate, expensive, time consuming No indication of type of fuel being used Indirect Calorimetry Energy metabolism depends on use of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide Compares [O 2& [CO 2 volume in inspired vs. expired air Results close to direct calorimetry Less expensive DRI Equations: Estimated Energy Requirements Estimated energy requirement (EER): number of calories needed for a healthy individual to maintain his or her weight Calculated based on gender, age, height, weight, activity level, and life stage Need to know physical activity (PA) value Physical Activity & PA Level NEAT Energy Intake Review Carbs: 4 cal/gram Fat:9 cal/gram Protein: 4 cal/gram Alcohol:7 cal/gram Energy Balance Maintain weight: calories consumed = calories expended Weight gain: calories consumed > calories expended Weight loss: calories consumed < calories expended Storage of Excess Calories Excess Body Fat Increases Health Risks high blood pressure heart disease high blood cholesterol diabetes gallbladder disease arthritis sleep disorders respiratory problems menstrual irregularities breast, uterus, prostate, & colon cancer incidence and severity of infectious disease poor wound healing surgical complications Body Mass Measurements Lean body mass: mass of non-fat body parts Body weight = lean body mass + weight of fat Body mass index (BMI) = Weight in kilograms/(Height in meters) or 2 [Weight in pounds/(Height in inches) ] x 703 BMI Overweight: > 25 and < 30 kg/m Underweight: <18.5 kg/ m Obesity: >30 kg/ m 2 Morbid/extreme obesity: > 40 kg/m Measuring Body Composition Skinfold Underwater Weighing Thickness Bod Pod DX Bioelectric alpedanc A e Percent Body Fat Young, healthy female: 21–32% of total weight Young, healthy male: 8–19% of total weight With age: Lean body mass decreases Body fat increases Body Fat Location Subcutaneous fat: adipose tissue under the skin, for example, in hips and legs (pear shape) Visceral fat: adipose tissue around abdominal organs (apple shape) more metabolically active associated with higher disease risk Genes & Body Weight >100 genes are associated with body weight management 20–30 obesity genes produce proteins affecting how much food you eat, how much energy you expend, and the way fat is stored Genes & Environment Set Point Body compensates for diet and exercise variations by adjusting energy intake and expenditure to keep weight at a particular level Body responds to short-term changes in food intake and activity and long-term changes in stored body fat Determined in part by genes Appetite, Hunger, & Satiety Appetite: desire to consume specific foods triggered by external cues (for example, smell) independent of hunger Satiety: Feeling of fullness and satisfaction caused by food consumption that eliminates desire to eat Hunger: desire to consume food that is triggered by internal physiological signals Short-Term Regulation of Food Intake Hormones & Weight Control Ghrelin: released by the stomach to stimulate the desire to eat at usual mealtimes Peptide YY: released by the gastrointestinal tract after a meal in proportion to the number of calories consumed to reduce appetite Leptin: secreted from adipocytes in proportion to their size to regulate energy intake and expenditure Leptin Weight Management Balance between energy intake & expenditure Portion Distortion Weight-Loss Decisions Losing Weight Eat less, exercise more, or both Change behaviors that led to weight gain To lose a pound of fat, decrease intake and/or increase expenditure by about 3500 Calories To lose a pound in a week, tip energy balance by about 500 Calories/day Losing weight at a rate of 1/2 – 2 lbs/week helps ensure mostly fat loss and not lean tissue For most people, a loss of 5% to 15% of body weight will significantly reduce disease risk Weight Cycling (Yo-yo Dieting) Behavior Modification Gaining Weight Have a medical assessment to determine reasons for low weight Gradually increase energy-dense foods To encourage muscle gain rather than fat, strength-training exercise should be a component of any weight gain program Weight-Loss Diets Effective programs promote: weight loss can be maintained over the long term healthy weight-loss changes in the lifestyle patterns that led to weight gain To maintain weight loss, fewer calories need to be consumed Weight Loss Plans Self-Reflection What are you eating? When are you eating? How much? Who are you eating with? Feelings/Mood Satiety Symptoms Tips for Weight Maintenance Eat breakfast Eating similar on weekend and weekdays Don’t go too low. Small, frequent meals Support Avoidance of mindless eating Self-Monitoring Maintaining Physical Activity Portion Control Eating Healthy When Eating Out Cooking methods (roasted, broiled, steamed, poached, and baked) Have it your way Nutrition Apps to Decrease Barriers = Increase in Positive Choicesation Prescription Weight-Loss Drugs Reduce appetite by affecting brain neurotransmitters EX: phentermine (Adipex) Decrease fat absorption in the intestine EX: orlistat (Xenical) Recommended only if health is seriously compromised by body weight Disadvantage: weight usually regained when drug is discontinued OTC Weight-Loss Drugs Weight-Loss Supplements Not regulated by the FDA Contain soluble fiber to help feel full “Fat burners” Ephedra - increases blood pressure and heart rate and constricts blood vessels (banned in 2004) Bitter orange, guarana, green tea extract Weight loss through water loss Diuretics or laxatives (senna, aloe, buckthorn, rhubarb root, cascara, and castor oil) Weight-Loss Surgery Alters the gastrointestinal tract to reduce food intake and absorption Adjustable gastric banding: limits amount of food that can be consumed Gastric bypass: reduces amount of food that can be consumed and absorbed Liposuction: a large hollow needle is inserted under the skin into a fat deposit to vacuum out the fat; cosmetic Eating Disorders Psychological illnesses characterized by specific abnormal eating behaviors, often intended to control weight Anorexia nervosa: self-starvation, a distorted body image, and abnormally low body weight Bulimia nervosa: consumption of a large amount of food at one time (binge eating) followed by purging behaviors (self-induced vomiting) Binge-eating disorder: recurrent episodes of binge eating in the absence of purging behavior NOTE: binge-eating is the most common, yet least talked about eating disorder Anorexia Nervosa Criteria Significantly low body weight Intense fear of gaining weight/becoming fat Disturbance in the way in which one’s body weight or shape is experienced, undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation, or persistent lack of recognition of the seriousness of the current low body weight. Bulimia Nervosa Criteria Recurrent episodes of Binge Eating (Eating, in a discrete period of time, an amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat during a similar period of time and under similar circumstances) A sense of lack of control over eating during the episode Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior in order to prevent weight gain, such as self-induced vomiting; misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications; fasting; or excessive exercise Mentioned events recurring at least once a week for 3 months Self-evaluation unduly influenced by body shape & weight Binge-Eating Disorder Criteria An episode of binge eating is characterized by both of the following: Eating, in a discrete period of time, an amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat during a similar period of time and under similar circumstances A sense of lack of control over eating during the episode (e.g., a feeling that one cannot stop eating or control what or how much one is eating). Binge eating episodes are associated with at least three of the following: Eating much more rapidly than normal Eating until feeling uncomfortably full Eating large amounts of food when not feeling physically hungry Eating alone because of being embarrassed by how much one is eating Feeling disgusted with oneself, depressed or feeling very guilty after overeating. Marked distress regarding binge eating is present: At least once a week for 3 months The binge eating is not associated with the recurrent use of inappropriate compensatory behavior Help for Eating Disorders Treat as early as possible Get Treatment from multiple disciplines Be aware of friends and family members who are at risk. Be supportive