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Life In the Sea (Week 1 Notes)

by: AlexandraRita Notetaker

Life In the Sea (Week 1 Notes) EVE 012

Marketplace > University of California - Davis > Business > EVE 012 > Life In the Sea Week 1 Notes
AlexandraRita Notetaker
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First Week of notes. March 29th and March 31st. Life in the Sea with Susan williams.
Life in The Sea
Susan Williams
Class Notes
marine biology, UCD, UC Davis, Davis, University of California Davis, notes, popular, Life in the Sea, EVE 012




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by AlexandraRita Notetaker on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EVE 012 at University of California - Davis taught by Susan Williams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Life in The Sea in Business at University of California - Davis.


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Date Created: 03/31/16
Life in The Sea Day 1 (March 29 ) Introduction Life in The Sea >50% of all life on Earth lives in the sea ~250,000 known species of marine animals Tiniest primary producers - nanoplankton, picoplankton Largest carnivores - Southern fur seal, sperm whale 60% of marine habitats providing human livelihoods are degraded Hydrothermal Vent Hydrothermal vents: undersea volcanoes where molten rocks are released from the earth’s mantle. -3700 M deep in the California Gulf Hydrothermal vents are extreme environments for life -very hot (518-716oF) 15cm (6in) -no light The molten material forms new sea floor that slowly spreads away from the vents over time. Life is Abundant in Vents Despite no light for photosynthesis -Chemosynthesis supports vent food webs. Bacteria use H2S to make organic matter. -Vent tube worms (Genus Riftia) Grow fast and tall -No mouth or digestive tract Have symbiotic sulfur bacteria -Red from hemoglobin which binds sulfur for bacteria to use. What is Biodiversity? -The variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem. Section A has a higher Diversity because it includes a wider diversity of species. -Species richness: # of species in a community -Dominance: one species has very high abundance -Species with very low abundance could go extinct; biodiversity -Evenness: all species have relatively same abundance Day 2 (March 31 ) Ocean Environment Ocean • 71% of Earth is covered by oceans • Deep 11,033 m (seven miles) in Mariana Trench Seawater’s special chemical composition Seawater: = 96.5% of water + 3.5% dissolved salts • Def. Salinity: the total amount of dissolved salts • Cl-, Na+, SO4-2, Mg +2, Ca+2, K+ (ions, ‘salts’) • Organisms are mostly seawater (> 80%) • Constant composition of salts (SO4/Cl = 0.1396) – Ratios of major ions are constant in the ocean Water is a good solvent (H+ bonds) - Salts make seawater dense (mass/volume)- strong fluid forces -Lower freezing point than fresh water 2 -Well-buffered- stable pH (measure of acidity) Buffering capacity allows ocean to absorb CO2 • Buffering capacity is being exceeded • Oceans are becoming more acidic fast Light Supports Most Sea Life • Energy for life comes from the sun as electromagnetic radiation • Most of the energy from the sun is infrared radiation or heat (67%) • Visible light is absorbed by chlorophyll and other pigments during photosynthesis Light in the sea- most of the sea is dark • Blue light has the most energy of visible wavelengths (Fig. 3.11) • Remember- Sea life in hydrothermal vents depends on chemosynthesis, not photosynthesis. 3 The sea is cold Thermocline- sharp change in temperature with ocean depth.    Seawater is a dense, viscous fluid • Seawater is very dense (high mass/volume ratio). – Density is determined by salinity and temperature. • Marine life is buoyant in dense seawater. • Many marine organisms collapse under the force of gravity when on land. – Def. Invertebrates- animals without backbones – Invertebrates are very diverse and common in the sea. • Buoyancy helps explain why whales can be huge. Dense seawater is highly viscous • Def. Viscosity: the tendency for a fluid to be ‘sticky’ and resist flowing • 55x more viscous and denser than air • High viscosity results in strong forces. 4 – The force of a current is 29 x stronger than the force of wind. • High viscosity results in strong forces. Def. Drag: The force of a flowing fluid on an organism – strong attachments (kelp ‘holdfasts’) – elasticity(stretch and bend) – streamlining(tunas) Importance of Fluid Flow (‘hydrodynamics’) • Transport of reproductive particles, food, essential molecules for life (O2 for animals, CO2 for plants) • Removal of waste products • Chemical signaling • Fluid stress on attached organisms • Boundary layers are regions of very slow flow close to a surface (e.g., organism, sea floor, rock wall). • Boundary layers provide protection from fluid energy. Tides- Ebb and Flow • Tides exposure the shoreline at least once a day. • ‘Intertidal’ zone- shallowest part of ocean heat, desiccation breaking waves   Ocean Circulation Shallow and Deep Currents • Ocean waters circulate the globe in major currents. • Major ocean currents are driven by heating and cooling of the earth. – The colder and saltier the water, the more dense and likely to sink below the surface • Local currents are the result of winds blowing on the surface of the water and the rotation of the earth, in 5 addition to density differences. Surface Currents Major currents influence the distribution and spread of organisms throughout the oceans. Major currents have distinct salinities and temperatures, which influence sea life   Thermohaline circulation • Thermohaline circulation: The conveyor-belt global circulation of ocean water between the surface and deep water layers. – ‘thermo’ refers to temperature – ‘haline’ refers to salt – Temperature and salinity combined determine the ______________ of seawater. • Thermohaline circulation is the result of changes in the density of seawater. • Density changes are due to- – freshwater input from precipitation and fresh water run-off and evaporation – heating and cooling of surface waters • Global warming could disrupt the thermohaline circulation, leading to an abrupt climate change. 6 Ocean conditions change seasonally and over longer cycles. • El Niño (warm) Southern Oscillation (ENSO)- a normal ocean climate cycle • ENSO - higher than average SST (Sea Surface Temperature) • Occurs ~7 years. • Often followed by colder than • average cycle (La Nina) El Nino Effects -Tropical sea life to normaly colder coasts -Coral Bleaching -Food Web Disruption -Harmful Algal Bloom Major ocean changes due to increased CO2 1. Warming - icecapmelting - sealevelrise 2. Increased CO2 concentrations in seawater - acidification(lowpHwaters) - bufferingcapacityexceeded - ‘the other CO2 problem’ In the 2,100,000 years before 1912, CO2 concentration was lower than 300 ppm. Global warming results in sea level rise and habitat loss • 500,000,000 people displaced worldwide • Brackish drinking water for coastal cities • Decreases in shallow marine habitats, beaches, and 7 tourists Ocean acidification- the other CO2 problem CO2 absorbed into the ocean alters the chemistry of seawater • Seawater becomes more acidic (lower pH) • Difficult for organisms to build calcium carbonate shells and skeletons • In extreme cases, shells/skeletons dissolve Summary • The ocean is a cold, dark, high-pressure environment. • Sea water is salty, dense, and viscous. • Thermohaline circulation is the result of differences in the density of seawater. • Flowing seawater isi mportant for sea life, but it can also exert strong forces. • Ocean circulation patterns influence climate earth’s climate and the distribution of sea life. – Surface currents – Thermohaline circulation • The ocean environment has natural cycles of variation (e.g., ENSO) • Recent variation in the ocean environment is unprecedented (ocean warming, acidification). 8


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