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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natasha on Tuesday November 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 202 at St. Cloud State University taught by Schoenfuss, Heiko in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at St. Cloud State University.
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Date Created: 11/24/15
Biol 202 Lecture 22 Peripheral Nervous System Nerves and ganglia outside the central nervous system Neuron individual nerve cell Neuron bers are bundled by connective tissue 0 Cranial nerves 0 From the brain 0 Somatic bers connect to the skin and skeletal muscles 0 Autonomic bers connect to viscera Spinal nerves 0 From the spinal cord 0 Somatic vers connect to skin and skeletal muscles 0 Autonomic bers connect to viscera Nerve and Nerve Fiber Classi cation Sensory nerves 0 Carry information from the body to the brain 0 Motor nerves 0 Carry information from the brain to muscles or glands Mixed nerves 0 Both sensory and motor 0 Most nerves are mixed 0 ALL spinal nerves are mixed except the rst one 0 Special Somatic Afferent SSA Fibers 0 Carry sensory information to the grain from eyes ear and equilibrium 0 Special Visceral Afferent SVA Fibers 0 Carry sensory information to the brain from olfactory and taste receptors 0 Special Somatic Efferent SSE Fibers 0 Carry motor impulses from the brain to muscles swallowing chewing speaking and facial expressions General Visceral Efferent GVE Fibers 0 Carry motor impulses from the central nervous system to muscles and glands Cranial Nerves 12 pairs of nerves Numbered anterior to posterior l to Xll Most are mixed nerves and only three are sensory 12 Pairs of Cranial Nerves l Olfactory Nerve a SENSORY VI VII VIII XI XII b smell Optic Nerve a SENSORY b vision Oculomotor Nerve a Mixed nerve b Innervates four of the extrinsic eye muscles Trochlear Nerve a Mixed nerve b Innervates the superior oblique muscle Trigeminal Nerve a Mixed nerve b Chewing muscle c Sensory innervation to the face Abducens Nerve a Mixed nerve b Abducts the eeball c Innervates lateral rectus muscle Facial Nerve a Mixed nerve b Very super cial c Facial expressions Vestibulocochlear Nerve a SENSORY b Hearing and balance Glossopharyngeal Nerve a Mixed nerve b Tongue pharynx and neck c Speech and talking Vagus Nerve a Mixed nerve b Goes to larynx heart lungs kidneys liver stomach digestive tract etc c Tells your body how everything is working Accessory Nerve a Mixed nerve b Helps vastus nerve and innervates neck muscles Hypoglossal Nerve a Mixed nerve b Important for talking c Innervates tongue muscles Spinal Nerves 31 pairs of spinal nerves 1 pair between every 2 adjacent vertebrae Named after superior vertebrae Formed by ventral and dorsal roots of the spinal cord Anatomy of Spinal Nerves Dorsal rami serve the skin and muscles of the posterior side of the trunk o Ventral rami forms a complex of networks for the anterior side of the trunk Dorsal root contains sensory bers 0 Ventral root contains motor bers arising from anterior gray cmumn Dorsal ramus and ventral ramus both contain sensory and motor bers Introduction to Nerve Plexuses o Nerve plexus network of nerves Ventral rami 0 Branch and join with one another 0 Forms nerve plexuses Cervical Brachial Lumbar Sacral o Primarily serves the limbs o Fibers from the ventral rami crisscross Cervical Buried deep in the neck under the sternocleidomastoid muscle 0 Formed by ventral rami C1C4 Most are cutaneous nerves 0 Some innervate muscles of the anterior neck Brachial o Lie in the neck and axilla Formed by ventral rami C5C8 Cords give rise to main nerves of the upper limb Lumbar Formed from L1L4 lnnervate posterior abdominal wall and psoas muscle 0 Main branches innervate anterior thigh Sacral o Formed from L4S4 Referred to as lumbosacral plexus Sciatic nerve large nerve that is actually two nerves in one sheath Innervation of the Back Dorsal rami o Neat segmented pattern 0 Horizontal strip of muscle and skin 0 In line with emergence point from the vertebral column Innervation of the Thoracic region 0 Ventral rami arranged in simple segmented patter ntercosta nerves supply the intercostal muscles skin and abdominal wall 0 Lateral and anterior cutaneous braches Dermatone 0 An area of the skin that the sensory nerve vers of a particular spinal nerve innervate Zebras melanocytes follow the migration of neural crest cells giving the zebra stripes Re exes Stretch re exes 0 Hit patellar ligament with a rubber mallet o Knee jerk re ex o Keeps you from tripping and falling Withdrawal and CrossedExtensor Re exes o Stepping on a nailfoot lifts up 0 Other leg is steady s you 0 Crosses across your spinal cord to the other side of your body PNS Nerve Pathologies Autoimmune Disorders 0 Diabetes Lupus Sarcoid Lumbosacral in old dogs when they drag their hind legs
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