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PSYC chapter 13

by: Briana Marcy

PSYC chapter 13 PSYC 100-001

Briana Marcy
GPA 3.8
Basic Concepts in Psycology
Michael Anderson

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Basic Concepts in Psycology
Michael Anderson
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Marcy on Tuesday November 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 100-001 at George Mason University taught by Michael Anderson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Basic Concepts in Psycology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 11/24/15
PSYC CH 13 Social Psychology Social Thinking Social psychology 0 The scienti c study of how we think about in uence and relate to one another 0 Social psychologists 0 Use scienti c methods to study how people think about in uence and relate to one another 0 Study the social in uences that explain why the same person will act differently in different situations 0 When explaining others39 behavior especially from an individualist Western cultural perspective 0 Fundamental attribution error committed by underestimating the in uence of the situation and overestimating the effects of stable enduring traits 0 Behavior more readily attributed to the in uence of the situation 0 Explaining and attributing actions can have important reallife social and economic effects Fundamental attribution error the tendency when analyzing others behavior to overestimate the in uence of personal traits and underestimate the in uence of personal traits and underestimate the effects of the situation Most likely to occur when stranger acts badly has reallife and social consequences Napolitan and colleagues 1979 Students attributed behavior of others to personal traits even when they were told that behavior was part of an experimental situation Attitudes Affect Actions Attributes are feelings in uenced by beliefs that predispose reactions to objects people and events 0 Peripheral route persuasion uses incidental cues to try to produce fast but relatively thoughtless changes in attitudes Central route persuasion offers evidence and arguments to trigger thoughtful responses Actions Affect Attitudes 0 Actions can modify attitudes 0 Footinthedoor phenomenon involves compliance w a large request after having agreed to a small request works for negative and positive behavior 0 Role playing includes acting a social part by following guidelines for expected behavior Attitudes follow behavior Cooperative actions such as those performed by people on sports teams feed mutual liking Such attitudes in turn promote positive behavior Social Thinking 0 When attitudes do not t with actions tensions are often reduced by changing attitudes to match actions cognitive dissonance theory 0 We act to reduce the discomfort dissonance we feel when two of our thoughts cognitions clash 0 Brain regions become active when people experience cognitive dissonance 0 Through cognitive dissonance we often bring attitudes into line with our actions Social In uence Conformity and obedience o Chartrand and colleagues 1999 0 Demonstrated chameleon effect with college students 0 Automatic mimicry helps people to empathize and feel what others feel 0 The more we mimic the greater our empathy and the more people tend to like us Conformity and Obedience Solomon Asch and others have found that people are most likely to adjust their behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard when They feel incompetent or insecure their group has at least three people everyone else agrees they admire the group s status or attractiveness they have not already committed to another response they know they are being observed their culture encourages respect for social standards Reasons People May Conform Normative social in uence to gain approval Informational social in uence to accept others39 opinions as new information However suggestibility and mimicry can lead to tragedy EX copycat violence threats after Colorado39s Columbine High School shootings Milgram s Obedience Experiments Stanley Milgram39s experiments People obeyed orders Strong social in uences can make ordinary people conform to falsehoods or exhibit cruel behavior Findings Obedience in the Milgram experiments was highest when Person giving orders was nearby and was perceived as a legitimate authority gure Research was supported by a prestigious institution Victim was depersonalized or at a distance and There were no role models for de ance Social In uence n social facilitation presence of others arouses people improving performance on easy or welllearned tasks but decreasing it on difficult ones Performance can also be hindered bc the most likely but not necessarily the correct response occurs Home town advantage when others observe us we perform welllearned tasks more quickly and accurately crowding effect Social loa ng tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their effects toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable Causes acting as part of group may make those involved feel less accountable they may feel like their contribution does not matter taking advantage when there is lack of identi cation w group Deindividualism nvolves loss of selfawareness and selfrestraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity Group Polarization If a group is likeminded discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions Taking over racial issues increased prejudice in a highprejudice group of high school students and decreased it in a lowprejudice group Antisocial Relations Prejudice means prejudgment is an unjusti ed negative attitude toward some group and its members often targets different cultural ethnic or gender group Beliefs emotions predispositions to action to discriminate How Prejudiced Are People Explicit prejudice in North America has decreased over time 0 Support for all forms of racial contact including interracial dating 0 Social roots of prejudice 0 Social inequalities Have often developed attitudes that justify status quo 0 just world phenomenon good is rewarded and evil is punished o Stereotypes Rationalize inequalities Antisocial Relations 0 Groups 0 Through social identities people associate themselves w others 0 Evolution prepares people to identify w a group lngroup Social de nition of who we are and are not lngroup bias favoring of our group Emotional Roots of Predjudice o Scapegoat theory 0 Proposes that when things go wrong nding someone to blame can provide an outlet for anger Research evidence Zimbardo o Prejudice levels tend to be high among economically frustrated people 0 In experiments a temporary frustration increases prejudice Antisocial Relations Implicit prejudice Implicit racial associations Implicit Association Tests results Even people who deny racial prejudice may carry negative associations Unconscious patronization Lower expectations in ated praise and insufficient criticism for minority student achievement Racein uenced perceptions Automatic racial bias Re exive bodily responses Unconscious selective responses when looking at faces Cognitive Roots of Prejudice o Forming categories O Humans categorize people by race and mixedrace people identify by their minority identity 0 Similarities overestimated during categorization creating quotus andtheyquot O Overestimation also occurs otherrace effect or bias The Biology of Aggression Biology in uences aggression at three levels Genetic in uences Evidence from animal studies and twin studies genetic Y chromosome genetic marker MAOA gene Alcohol associated with aggressive responses to frustration Neural in uences Neural systems facilitate or inhibit aggression when provoked Aggression more likely to occur with frontal lobe damage Biochemical in uences Testosterone linked with irritability assertiveness impulsiveness and low tolerance for frustration alcohol effect Psychological and SocialCultural Factors in Aggression Adversive events Frustrationaggression principle Frustration creates anger which can spark aggression Other anger triggers Hot temperatures physical pain personal insults foul odors cigarette smoke crowding and a host of others Previous reinforcement for aggressive behavior observing an aggressive role model and poor selfcontrol Media portrayals of violence provide social scripts that children learn to follow Viewing sexual violence contributes to greater aggression toward women Playing violent video games increases aggressive thoughts emotions and behaviors Do violent video games teach social scripts for violence Nearly 400 studies of 130000 people suggest that video games can prime aggressive thoughts decrease empathy and increase aggression Some researchers dispute this nding and note other factors Depression family violence and peer in uence Prosocial Relations 0 Psychology of attraction 0 Proximity mere exposure effect 0 Physical attractiveness o Similarity of attitudes and interests 0 Modern matchmaking o Internetformed friendships and romantic relationships are on average slightly more likely to last and be satisfying 0 Nearly a quarter of heterosexual and twothirds of samesex couples met online Speeddating 0 Men are more transparent o Choices may be more super cial 0 Women tend to be more choosy than men What does it mean to be attractive The answer varies by culture and over time Some adult physical features such as a youthful form and average face seem attractive everywhere Appealing traits enhance feelings of physical attractiveness Liking endures when people are more alike ONLINE matchmaking Internetformed friendships and relationships may last longer than regularly formed ones and be more satisfying Nearly a 14 of heterosexual and 23 samesex couples met online Controlled studies needed SPEED dating Unique opportunity to study rst impressions Men are more transparent given more options people make more super cial choices men wish for more contact with more of the speed dates women are more selective Romantic Love Passionate love 0 Twofactor theory of emotion Emotions have two ingredients physical arousal and cognitive appraisal Arousal from any source can enhance an emotion depending on how we interpret and label the arousal 0 Sexual desire a growing attachment the passion of romantic love Companionate love Passionate love seldom endures o Passion fed hormones testosterone gives way to oxytocin that supports feelings of trust calmness and bonding o Attraction and sexual desire endure without obsession of early stage marriage 0 Equity is an important key to satisfying and enduring relationships 0 Selfdisclosure deepens intimacy O Altruism The unsel sh concern for the welfare of others 0 People are most likely to help when they notice an incident interpret it as an emergency and assume responsibility for helping 0 Odds for being helped are also increased if person appears to deserve help or is a women 0 Similarity to self unhurried or in a good mood feeling guilty focused on others and not preoccupied also raises likelihood of being helped Bystander affect o Tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present 0 Occurs when there is a diffusion of responsibility The Norms for Helping Positive social norms encourage generosity and enable group living 0 Socialization norm Social expectation that prescribes how we should behave o Reciprocity norm Expectation that people will respond favorably to each other by returning bene ts for bene t costbene t analysis utilitarianism social exchange theory 0 Socialresponsibility norm Expectation that people should help those who depend on them Peacemaking Con ict Perceived incompatibility of actions goals or ideas in which people become enmeshed in potentially destructive processes that often produce unwanted results Among these processes are social traps and distorted perceptions Social trap Situation in which con icting parties by each pursuing their self interest rather than the good of the group become caught in mutually destructive behavior Mirrorimage perceptions Mutual views often held by con icting people as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive Con ict and Peacemaking Enemy perceptions People in con ict form negative distorted images of one another mirrorimage perceptions Us versus Them develops Vicious cycle of hostility emerges at individual or national level Perceptions can become selfful lling prophecies Promoting Peace Research indicates that in some cases contact and cooperation can be transformational Contact Most effective when contact is free of competition and equal status exists Across a quartermillion people studied in 38 nations friendly contact with ethnic minorities older people and people with disabilities has usually led to less prejudice Contact is not always enough


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