Moral Development 11-19-2-15
Moral Development 11-19-2-15 PSY 2400
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Mullins on Wednesday November 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2400 at Wayne State University taught by Dr.Glenn Weisfeld in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Developmental psychology in Psychlogy at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 11/25/15
Moral Development Pride and shame are feelings of success versus failure high versus low selfesteem Both are universal and conveyed through facial expressions of shame and guilt as well as pride and happiness A High prevalence in our society there are social incentives to commit prideful acts Thoughts before doing something considered quotshameful costbenefit analysis before committing an act will it hurt me Will I be caught Children were they socialized to think of others foreign perspectives their level of cognitive ability theory of mind according to Kohlberg s stages of moral development they rise on the scale one level at a time Guilt isn t learned the collective values of a society are learned that dictate when one feels guilty B It is an evolved basis in dominant behaviour as shown by 1 Universal feelings of social pressures concerned with reputation 2 Stereotype expressions nonverbal expressions are universal more body than face ex shame hunched over making the body smaller appear to take up less space pride takes up more space animated movements direct gaze Orbital frontal cortex this is important to be developed fully this area controls emotions of pride and shame Damage to this region perhaps by an accident like Phineas Gage or a stroke or it just never develops results in severe deficits in feelings of pride and shame That s why stroke victims sometimes suddenly develop what seems a nasty sense of humour getting a rise out of people by being rude but their OFC is just damaged 3 Phylogenetic continuity it s found in chimps this need to prove oneself a Nonverbal expressions swagger head up moving arms around uninhibited holding up tail Prerogatives privileges mating opportunities best location higher pay Fight for rank d Ranks stabilize over time animals learn others abilities once they learn they don t challenge them outside of those immediately above them more fighting when ranks are unknown Le a new members joins the group part of inter male dominance e Individual differences between winners and losers po Winners seek out social situations get attention exercise leadership and are inclined to accept challenges Losers sent to the fringes of the group most dangerous place to be may experience more predators Sex more confident 9 more testosterone circulating confidence increases before the fight or test If they win it stays elevated for some period If they lose it goes down Losers have a higher level of cortisol experience loss of resources lowered ranking shame less popular adolescents as well Lesions in orbitofrontal cortex 9 Animals no concept of their rank dominance behaviour is suppressed fall to the bottom of the ranks ex big dogs not understanding they could take down a rat if they wanted to Serotonin higher in highranking members of a group researcher vs assistant president vs members of a fraternity II Development of moralcompetitive behaviour A D Infancy will comfort show empathy 2 YO prideshame responses to praisecriticism 23 YO nonverbal indicators blushingsubmission display 34 YO rivalry comparison starts society shapes what is valued Adolescents How to be popular Prosocial do well in school OR antisocial provoke authorities Both are aided by being physically attractive Adulthood esteemed if they can gather resources prosocial generous considerate goodlooking physically imposing Reciprocal Altruism mutualism symbiosis working in harmony together in a way that is beneficial to both people ex vampire bats if after a night of feeding one bat doesn t harvest enough blood other bats might share some of their share depending on factors such as kinship if they ve been helped by this particular bat before and empathetic experiences of the bat A kin altruism stronger due to relation and acclimation to protect their genetic line Mechanisms to increase odds of reciprocity B Supporting emotions 1 Moralistic anger used to enforce social norm to retaliate they might not help that person again might seek to punish that person People are strongly inclined to enforce the rules Gratitude inclined to return the favour make things equal gain possible negative emotions A part of shame 3 Pride lending a favour increases personal status you get a reward and one feels good about themselves pride kick starts altruistic behaviour 4 Empathy physical similarity proxy for genetic similarity the more similar you look the better chances you re related who is in most dire need of help who deserves to be helped are they in this situation now because of external forces beyond their control and if they ve been helped by them in the past Dishonesty is the most remembered trait by people in a study showing multiple faces while describing some of them as cheaters or deceitful the ones described were most often recalled out of the group of pictures Inequitiesequity has to be maintained or people feel uncomfortable Ex transplant donors feel immense guilt towards the donor for something you can t thank enough for experimental subjects don t like charity they prefer modest rewards this also includes being excessively praised leading one to feel guilty about it Development 21 months reward good puppet and punish bad puppet after watching them do something respectively good and bad they understand it is important to keep the order Pitfalls if one lacks skills to offer they ll be less likely to help you need something to give so that you can receive anguage allows us to make verbal contracts so the discrepancy between help offered and reward give can be minimized if a child isn t well socialized to appreciate reciprocity this trait doesn t develop
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