NHM201ch1819.pdf NHM 201
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Wednesday November 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 201 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Denise DeSalvo in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Nutrition Through the Lifecycle in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 11/25/15
Tuesday November 24 2015 NHM 201 Older Adults Chapters 18 amp 19 We will not cover the theories of aging that are in our textbook Old is defined as about 65 Nutrition status in old age depends on our lifestyle choices throughout our life The CDC suggests that longevity of life depends on 10 access to health care 19 genetics 20 environment pollution etc 51 lifestyle factors Persons over 85 are the fastest growing population group Life Expectancy vs Life Span Life expectancy average number of years of life remaining most commonly reported as life expectancy from birth Life expectancy at birth is 785 years in the United States Life span maximum number of years someone might live 110120 years on average for human beings Physiological changes include decreased endurance decreased saliva Body Composition Changes LBM decreases 2 3 from age 20 to age 70 Lean Body Mass LBM sum of fatfree tissues mineral as bone and water Sarcopenia loss of LBM associated with aging Older people have over mineral muscle and water reserves In older adults weightbearing and resistance exercise increase lean muscle mass and bone density Tuesday November 24 2015 Regular physical activity helps maintain functional status functional status ability to do the things we want to do Changes in Appetite and Thirst Hunger and satiety cues weaken with age Older adults may need to be more conscious of food intake levels since appetiteregulating mechanisms may be blunted Thirstregulating mechanisms decrease with age Nutritional Risk Factors hunger poverty low food and nutrient intake functional disability unable to do daily activities like cooking etc social isolationliving alone When older adults eat with other people they may eat for a longer period of time and eat more food urban and rural demographic areas depression dementia dependency poor dentition and oral health dietrelated acute or chronic diseases polypharmacy take 10 or more different medications advanced age DETERMINE Checklist list of warning signs of poor nutritional health in older adults Developed by the American Academy of Family Physicians the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and the National Council on Aging Disease Eating poorly Tooth lossmouth pain Economic hardship Reduced social contact Tuesday November 24 2015 Multiple medicines Involuntary weight lossgain Needs assistance in selfcare Elder years above 80 MNA Nutritional Screening and Assessment Mini Nutritional Assessment An older adult answers a series of questions to determine if they are at nutritional risk Nutrient Needs Most older adults do not meet nutritional needs Protein 08 gkg 1035 of calories Is this too low Researchers 113 gkg Fat 2035 of calories saturated lt 10 cholesterol 300 mgday Eggs are okay to eat even though they are high in cholesterol Carbohydrates 4565 of calories fiber 2228 gday Fluid Needs There is a decreased margin of safety for staying hydrated because the total amount of water decreases with age At least 6 glasses of water per day will prevent dehydration in most older adults to individualize 1 mL of fluid per kcal consumed minimum of 1500 mL Tuesday November 24 2015 Fluid includes the fluid in food as well as what an individual drinks Nutrients of Concern vitamin A Older adults are at risk for toxicity because they are less able to clear vitamin A from their system Food sources of vitamin A betacarotene do not pose a problem but supplements can cause toxicity vitamin D calciferol The skin of older adults is about 4x less efficient at converting vitamin D through sun exposure Certain medications interfere with vitamin D absorption vitamins E and K Vitamin E and vitamin K work against each other vitamin 812 812 is not as well absorbed because of decreased stomach acid in older adults A synthetic form is recommended iron Older adults may get too much iron This is problematic because iron creates free radicals contributes to oxidative stress calcium Adequate calcium intake is needed for bone health Calcium can be toxic if too much is consumed magnesium Magnesium also plays a role in bone health Magnesium plays a role in blood glucose metabolism It can be toxic if too much is consumed Chapter 19 Conditions and Interventions Tuesday November 24 2015 Medican Nutrition Therapy MNT results in positive health outcomes Refer back to Chapter 17 for heart disease stroke and hypertension Osteoporosis porous bone results in decreased bone mass and disruption of bone architecture higher in women than men less common in blacks because they have denser bones no signssymptoms Causes decreased calcium intake between the ages of 11 and 17 inactivity Weightbearing and resistance exercises help increase bone mass See Table 198 for isk factors Nutritional remedies adequate calcium and vitamin D don t take calcium with antacids inhibits absorption vitamins C D BB and K help build bones Oral Health Xerostomia dry mouth Dysgeusia loss of taste Glossodynia pain of the tongue Gastrointestinal Diseases Parts of the GI tract most likely to malfunction esophagealstomach juncture weakened muscle results in GERD gastroesophageal refulx disease stomach contents gastric acid backs up into esophagus stomach decreased acidity leads to changes in nutrient absorption increased acidity causes ulcers intestines constipation diarrhea and food intolerance Nutritional Risk Factors of GERD alcohol obesity smoking coffee regular and decaf Nutritional Remedies omit foods that cause discomfort Tuesday November 24 2015 lowfat diet avoid large meals remain upright after eating This varies from person to person Constipation no magic number of bowel movements per dayweek Risk factors decreased muscle strength chewing problem decreased fiber not enough water medication iron supplements etc Alzheimer s Disease loss of independent functioning memory impairment dementia Prevalence increases with age Effects of Cognitive Disorders confusion anxiety agitation loss of oral muscular control impairment of hunger appetite regulation changes in smell and taste dentalchewingswallowing problems Polypharmacy increases with age associated with adverse drug reactions hospital admissionsreadmissions increased mortality Medications may require dietary restriction and an interfere with appetite digestion and metabolism Underweight Being underweight is not a problem is an individual has always been thin but weight cycling is problematic In older adults underweight is more serious than overweight Dehydration physiological state in which cells ose water to the point of interfering with metabolic processes Tuesday November 24 2015 Symptoms upper body muscle weakness speech difficulty confusion dry mucous membranes nosemouth longitudinal tongue furrows dry tongue sunken appearance of eyes in sockets Effects increases resting heart rate greater risk of UTI urinary tract infection pneumonia pressure ulcers confusiondisorientationdementia