Bio Notes Week 9
Bio Notes Week 9 Biol 180
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nikki Hovland on Wednesday November 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 180 at University of Washington taught by Scott Freeman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology in Biology at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 11/25/15
INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY 180 Wednesday November 25 2015 Week 9 Notes Lecture 30 Population Structure balance between extinction and recolonization occurs in metapopulations over metapopulation is maintained over time populations cycle due to a combination of predation and food limitations age structure dramatically influences population s growth over time age pyramids give important info about a population s history and future in terms of growth survivorship expected to increase but fecundity expected to decrease future of human population depends on fertility rates how many kids each woman decides to have geographic patterns of species ranges clumped abundance of resources in certain locations patchy habitat social behavior overdispersed uniform even access to resources everywhere random roughly even resources and individuals occupy different resources independentlyrandomly patterns are not mutually exclusive gt ranges are dynamicconstantly changing because biotic and abiotic factors change over time metapopulation larger population made up of smaller populations connected by migration exist because areas are patchy and resources change some pop go extinct while others are created so overall pop stays about the same populations and resources ALWAYS changing small pop have a lot of genetic drift founder effects different mutationsselection within each pop gt different and independent in each humans are fragmenting habitats forcing many pop into metapopulations INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY 180 Wednesday November 25 2015 increased inbreeding smaller populations so genetic drift has more of impacteffect gt fixation or loss of alleles more common range changes decrease because less environment for individuals to move towards trapped Lecture 31 Disease Ecology coevolutionary arms race occurs when predatorsprey or herbivoresplants interact over time species interacting via consumption ie traits that increase predator abilities will increase while traits that increase prey s ability to not get eaten will increase and so on coevolution dramatically effects evolutionary change parasite manipulation is also coevolution example integrated pest management strategies to maximize crop and forest productivity while using minimum of other harmful compoundsinsecticides malaria as a model parasitism by 4 species of Plasmodium plasmodium ces passed from infected mosquitos to humans heterozygotes for sicklecell anemia no sickle cell disease and some resistance to malaria homozygotes for sicklecell anemia sickle cell disease and a lot of resistance to malaria therefore there is a fitness trade off between disease and malarial resistance plasmodium manipulates the mosquito host to increase its transmission Lecture 32 Consumption consumption is a positivenegative interaction when one organism eats another 2 INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY 180 Wednesday November 25 2015 herbivory when planteaters eat plant tissue parasitism when parasite eats small amounts of tissuenutrients from the host another individual often over long period of time also used to generally describe use of other resources ie birds may be social parasites lay eggs in other species nest and make other species help raise young predation predator kills and consumes all or most of another animal prey predation may also refer to eating plantsseedsembryos not just carnivores natural selection favors traits that help individuals not be eaten hide flee poison weapons armor for defense these traits are standingconstitutive defenses because they are there even if no predators mimicry one species resembling another Batesian mimicry looks dangerous NOT dangerous one species resembles an unpalatablepoisonoussmelly species as form of protectiondefense natural selection favors appearance successful in warding off predators Mullerian mimicry looks dangerous IS dangerous two unpalatable species resemble each other comimicry boosts fitness of each other predators more likely to avoid both of them constitutive defenses require a lot of energy and resources devoted to maintaining them inducible defenses physical chemical or behavioral defense traits induced in prey as a response to predator present energy efficient but slow to produce these defenses decrease if predators leave prey tend to have large intrinsic growth rate rmax max growth rate population can achieve under ideal conditions prey reproduce younger and more offspring predators often efficient enough to reduce prey below carrying capacity metaanalvsis study of studieslarge number of data INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY 180 Wednesday November 25 2015 Why is world green Why aren t all plants eaten if predators efficient enough to reduce prey topdown control hypothesis herbivore populations limited by predation and disease predators and parasite remove herbivores that eat plants gt less plants are eaten bottomup limitation hypothesis plant tissues offer poor nutrition and are well defended herbivore numbers limited because plant tissue isn t very nutritious less nitrogen than animals and can be toxichave effective defense so they aren t eaten both hypotheses are important to limiting impact of herbivory