Nutrition In class notes from November 15th-19th
Nutrition In class notes from November 15th-19th 65915
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Samar on Wednesday November 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 65915 at University of Arizona taught by Jennifer Ricketts in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Nutrition, Food and You in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 11/25/15
November 16th Factors that influence weight gain Biological factors 0 Hunger o Satiety 0 Regulation ghrelin leptin Genetic factors 0 Setpoint theory Environmental influences o Appetite Losing weight Eat less calories with maintaining proper levels of essential nutrients Set goals Making lifestyle changes 0 Caloric reduction 0 Physical activity Changing practices 0 Planning menus Shopping carefully Preparing and serving food Eating smart Changing negative thought pattern Preparing for holiday and parties Using caution at restaurants Self monitoring Obtaining social support Weight loss treatments Medications Orlistat Belviq stmia Surgical procedures 0 RouxenY o Sleeve gastrectomy o Gastric banding OOOOOOOO Fad diets Widespread appeal Gimmicks Overly restrictive carbohydrate Overly restrictive fat intakes Advertising hype Federal trade commission FTC Look out for claims that a product or service 0 Causes rapid to extreme weight loss 0 Requires no need to change dietary patterns or physical activity 0 Results in permanent weight loss o Is scientifically proven or doctor endorsed 0 Displays before and after photos 0 Includes a money back guarantee 0 Is safe or natural 0 Is supported by satisfied customers Gaining weight Underweight o 19 of Americans 0 BMI less than 185 Gaining weight 0 Calorie dense foods 0 Regular meal and snack schedule November 18th Regular exercise Health benefits 0 Weight control 0 Reduction of risk for CVD type 2 diabetes colon and breast cancer 0 Increased strength of bones and muscles 0 Improves psychological well being 0 Increased chances of longer healthier life Physical fitness Determining intensity Physical activity pyramid o Aerobic exercise Recommendations 0 Moderate intensity physical activity 0 Vigorous intensity physical activity 0 Strengthening exercises Fitness has basic components Basic components of physical fitness 0 Cardiorespiratory endurance 0 Muscle strength and endurance o Flexibility more flexibility means less injury 0 Body composition A person who is physically fit demonstrates all of these qualities Sound Fitness Program A sound physical fitness program appropriately overloads the body Overload principle 0 Cardiovascular and muscular 0 Too much physical exertion is not recommended Cardiorespiratory Exercise Can improve endurance and body composition 0 Continuous activities that use large muscle groups Aerobic oxygen required Benefits your heart blood and blood vessels Reduces stress Lowers risk of heart disease I Cholesterol levels I Heart rate I Blood pressure 0 Helps you maintain a healthy weight and reduce body fat Weight Training Improve Muscular Fitness and Body Composition 0 A low number of repetitionsmuscle strength 0 A higher number of repetitions muscle endurance with lighter weights 0 Rest periods to avoid overworking muscles and risk of injury Body Response to Exercise Overload principle 0 Hypertrophy with exercise I Muscle cells and tissue increase size I Response to muscle overload Sport specific physiques Cross training I Atrophywithout exercise Muscle cell and tissue decrease size 0000 Flexibility Stretching can improve flexibility reduce muscle soreness and risk of injury and improve balance posture and circulation 0 Static stretching I Relaxing muscle then extending it to a point of mild discomfort and holding for 10 to 30 seconds before relaxing it again 0 Dynamic stretching I Stretches muscles by moving using activities such as are swings kicks andlunges Yoga is a form of exercise that incorporates aspects of both static and dynamic stretching Energy systems Immediate 0 ATP creatine phosphate 0 Initial fuel for ant action 0 Lasts seconds 15 second max Anaerobic o Glucose catabolism without oxygen I High intensity activity I Lactate is byproduct Aerobic o Glucose fatty acids protein catabolism with oxygen 0 Complete catabolism Focusing on Carbohydrate intake Maintaining glycogen stores Sparing proteins Carbohydrate glycogen loading Carbs during events Exercise recovery Energy bars CarbohydratePrimary Energy Source during High Intensity Exercise Glucose from glycogen 0 Liver and Muscle I Muscle preferred during exercise I Liver important for blood glucose 0 2 hours moderate intensity 0 Training increases 20 to 50 percent High intensity activity glucose broken down into lactate o Lactate has been thought to negatively impact exercise performance however new research suggests it can be an important fuel during exercise Exercise duration affects how much glucose and glycogen you use Carbohydrate loading 0 Athletes in endurance eventsgt90 minutes are likely to benefit the most Simple carbohydrates 0 Absorbed and enter bloodstream quickly for energy or to replenish glycogen Complex carbohydrates 0 Carbohydrate content enters bloodstream more slowly becoming a sustained source of energy Fat as Fuel Fatty acids come from 2 sources 0 Fat stored within the working muscle 0 Fat stored under the skin adipose tissue Intensity of exercise 0 Fatty acids can only be broken down aerobically Duration of exercise 0 Cells begin to release fatty acids approximately 20 minutes into exercise Fitness level and fat as fuel Untrained muscle 0 Rely mostly on glycogen stores for energy and have greater lactic acid built up due to oxygen debt Trained muscle 0 Burn fat more readily then untrained muscles because they develop more fat burning enzymes and heart and lungs more efficient in oxygen delivery What should you eat before working out Important to allow sufficient time for food to digest 0 Large 3 to 4 hours before 0 Smaller meals 2 to 3 hours before 0 Small snack liquid 30min to an hour before Should contain adequate carbohydrate to maximize muscle and liver glycogen stores 0 1 to 45 gkg carbohydrate 1 to 4 hours prior to exercise High fat foods should be avoided several hours before exercise What should you eat during exercise For more than 1 hour 0 Carbohydrate intake recommended at 15 to 20 min intervals 0 20 to 60 grams of carbohydrates should be consumed per hour Sports drinks bars and gels provide easily digested carbohydrates 0 Glucose sucrose and maltodextrin are absorbed quickly 0 Fructose may cause GI distress o Consuming carbohydrate and protein improves net protein balance for endurance athletes What should you eat after exercise Carbohydrateglycogen 0 3045 minutes after exercise is most effective Consuming carbohydrate and protein after exercise increases muscle protein syntheseis A high carbohydrate moderate protein low far meal should be consumed within 2 hours Carbohydrate intake also associated with reduced inflammation and better immune recovery What Vitamins and Minerals are important during exercise Play a major role in metabolism of carbohydrate fat and protein for energy during exercise 0 Facilitate energy release Eating a wide variety of foods that meet your calorie needs will likely provide you with adequate vitamins and minerals to prevent deficiency without taking supplements Energy metabolism ATP formations Oxygen transport Fatigue At risk 0 Vegetarian athletes 0 Female athletes 0 Long distance runners 0 Athletes in sports that require quotmaking weight Calcium Bone health skeletal and heart muscle contraction and hormone and neurotransmitter activity Lost in sweat thus losses may be high in athletes Choosing foods high in calcium including fortifies foods can ensure that athletes meet their needs Protein intake Endurance and resistance athletes Replenishing fluids 2 rules sports drinks nutrient content Water intoxication Heat related stroke Fluid balance and body temperature fluids 0 promoting optimal performance and preventing dehydration and electrolyte imbalance Sweat 0 Water 0 Electrolytes sodium chloride and potassium
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