3/22 Notes APY203
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Notetaker on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APY203 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Pestle in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Physical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
APY203 3/22/2016 Australopithecus afarensis (LUCY) Grassile… east Africa Slightly arboreal 1984… Donald Johansson… a lot of skeleton found Diminutive Flaring hips Big molars-hominin feature…. Prominent canine tooth and small diastoma Rounder arch however Taxon in which laetoli trail is associated with… bipedal… Australopithecus africanus South Africa 2ndgrassile species About a third of brain size of modern humans (approx. same size of chimp skull) Prognathism- long snout Face is in front of the brain Postorbital constriction- cranium constricts dramatically, brain bulges sideways Dentally looks more modern than afarensus Prominent sexual dimorphism… still not as much as in afarensis Taung child… 1924 by Raymond Dart in limestone (S. Africa) … perished ῀6- 8yrs of age… 2.79 mya o First ex ever discovered of what’s called and endocast (imprint/cast of what brain looked like…. internal cast of a hollow object, often referring to the cranial vault in the study of brain development in humans and other organisms) Gives us ability to study cognition of early hominin Robust australopithecines Same size, big cheek teeth MQ ratio- 2.2, 2.7= great big teeth… molars and premolars were huge Primitive feature of dental structure… lived 2mya Diet associated with: Heavy stalky fibrous plant material o Requires massive grinding force and wide surface area to be grinded on o Specialized vegetarians… eating foods that other contemporary hominins weren’t eating o Also huge muscles… masseter and temporalis… big muscles require big sites to attach to... sagittal crest- temporalis attached all the way to here, which is sort of on top of head Paranthropus aethiopicus Robust australopithecine East Africa (Ethiopia) Black skull- stained in soil by presence of manganese Paranthropus boisei 1.5-2.5 mya… slightly older than paranthropus Paranthropus robustus S. Africa Multiple hominin species living side by side back in the day… at most points in our history there were other hominins with whom we were competing. if two closely related taxa exist in same geographical space, they diversify & specialize to not directly compete w/ each other… can see this with grassile & robust australopithecines… Robust go extinct. Genus Homo Bio-cultural trends in the genus Homo Already bipedal Continued dramatic increase in brain size Reduced size of cheek teeth Increase in body size Decrease in sexual dimorphism Trend of big molars reverses…. Smaller molar teeth relative to size of incisors (chimps and hums have same megadontia ratio) Change in limb portions Prolonged life history Expanded geographic range (later on in genus homo) Appearance and modification of stone tools Homo habilis Olduvai gorge, Tanzania (E Africa) ῀1.5-2.5 mya… contemporary of afarenus, boisei Face still anterior to neurocranium, more snootiness than modern human BUT still very close to what hum skulls look like Dental arch, not parallel tooth row, smaller molars Found mandible 2.8-2.9 mya- definitely put it as contemporary of afarensus 1 habilis or 2? o Homo rudolfis & Homo habilis o Differences in group of fossils found... some larger, some smaller (esp. cranial capacity) … none of this is definitive (diversity in living species can be accounted for) o Lumpers vs splitters Serous increase in brain size & changes in fxn o Broca (speech production) & Wernicke’s (speech comprehension) o Both these areas are growing and developing… this species was moving twds language o Why did this & language emerge? Can transmit more complex msgs using language than hand gestures Exaption (feature used for a particular reason that turns out to be useful for another reason or fxn) Broca & Wernicke’s areas facilitate fine motor control of small objects Oldowan tools- stone tool technology o ῀2.5 mya (contemporary with Homo habilis? Other?) o Two stones, whack one against the other, end up with an edge to cut things… despite apparent simplicity, these tools can cut through tissue & good for breaking bones and getting to marrow inside…. o Earliest members of Homo habilis were scavengers, we don’t have biological ability to break muscles and bones open… so we had access to calories Homo erectus/Homo ergaster ῀2mya Contemporary of robust australopithecines and Homo habilis Small cheek teeth & growing brain size Stature approaches modern proportions Turkana boy- 5.8 ft (6ft tall if adult) Much less prognathic Change in set of tools o Acheulean tools- represent difference in quality & fundamental shift in brains of hominins making these… were preplanned… Wanderlust OUT OF AFRICA! Earliest evidence for control of fire1.5-1.6 mya… fire important since it scares off animals and allows to maximize nutritional content Found in Europe all the way into Indonesia One fossil found of an edentulous (no teeth) individual. Means possibility of social safety net. Ergaster vs erectus: o Line drawn usually at Afr vs non-Afr o Earlier more primitive fossils in E Africa and Georgia seem to be ergaster while later fossils in Euro and Asia to erectus Problem: many E Asian fossils were lost in WW2 Slight variation due to individuals adapting to different climates and environments (doesn’t necessarily mean they are different species) Point of contention and why… morphology as point of relatedness Homo naledi At least 15 individuals found in a chamber in S. Africa in 2015 Fully bipedal Adult M 5 ft, F smaller… heavier body weight… size is found in moder homo sapiens that live in Africa today Hands fully hum, retention of ancestral shape in curve of fingers Small brained (400-500cc) Teeth & jaws fairly modern Problem: no date available (found in clay)… mix of old &new features.. some say 2.5-2.8mya, others don’t agree Potential early member of genus homo Homo antecessor (?) Modern day Spain (Cueva de los huesos) Subtle features that set it apart from erectus and later species like Neanderthals o May just be a transitional fossil, not antecessor… limited # of features (all they found was part of a jaw) Homo heidelbergensis/rhodesiensis Debate: one species or two? Heidelbergensis: found in Germany Rhodesiensis: found in Zimbabwe (former Rhodesia) United by large brains, encephalization quotients, robust cranial skeleton and thick bone, pronounced brow ridges o Dramatic bone ridges and thick bone, similar to Neanderthal (ancestor?) Material culture become more impressive… Aechulean tools become more sophisticated Neanderthals First fossils found in Neander valley in Germany (1850s) (thal=valley) Affinity to hum skeleton is amazing o Do these represent early forms of modern hums? Earlier forms of us? Or just closely related? Distinctive features: eyebrow ridge Bigger brains, bigger body, much more like us Tall stature, long limb… selection for longer limbs suitable for hot climate o Cold climate selects for shorter? o Nasal aperture Patterns of injury o Spent time with big animals o Not seen in previous species Couple 100,000 yrs ago Late surviving outpost.. evol failure Material culture, fairly new o Complex o More sophisticated, multipart process Hyoid bone: looks like one in modern hum (bone found by vocal chords) o Possessed language? Complex language? Maybe produced art (50-1000yrs) Intentional burial o Shanafar cave: Israel, remains of Neanderthal surrounded by pollen (flowers for burial or just an animal that brought it there?)
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