Week 12 Notes
Week 12 Notes FSCN 1112
U of M
Popular in Principles of Nutrition
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Cummins on Friday November 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FSCN 1112 at University of Minnesota taught by Mashek, Douglas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Principles of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 11/27/15
Week 12 Trace Minerals • Iron o Found in meat and seafood o Used in myoglobin and hemoglobin in the body o Non-heme iron found in enriched grains o Women need a lot more iron than men o Absorption ▯ As heme or ferric iron ▯ Inside of GI tract cells iron is bound to feretin ▯ Polyphenols can also bind to iron, making it impossible for iron to go to the rest of the body ▯ Iron has to be bound to a transport protein o Factors affecting absorption ▯ Increased demand from the body will increase absorption ▯ Vitamin C will increase absorption ▯ Acidic stomach conditions increase absorption ▯ High storage levels will decrease absorption o Functions ▯ Hemoglobin – helps transport oxygen ▯ Myoglobin – binds oxygen in the muscle ▯ Used in enzymes in the electron transport chain and citric acid cycle o Iron deficiency is the most common trace mineral deficiency in the world ▯ Causes anemia ▯ High risk – premature infants, children, females of childbearing age, vegetarians o Toxicity ▯ Leads to liver disease and heart failure ▯ Caused by excess supplementation ▯ Hemochromatosis – genetic disorder that causes increased absorption (the body always thinks it needs more) ▯ Bronze diabetes – excess stores in pancreas kills cells that manage blood glucose • Zinc o Found in meat and seafood o Bound to carrier protein in the body (metallothionein) o No storage in body (low risk for toxicity) o Absorption based on if the body needs more or not o Decreased absorption from dietary fiber and phytic acid o Function – over 300 different enzymes use zinc (for DNA, RNA synthesis) o Deficiency- not common in the US, but prevalent in developing countries ▯ Deficiency stops growth o Toxicity from supplements throat lozenges o Supplementing zinc in the first 24 hours of a cold will reduce duration and severity • Copper o Found in liver, shellfish, nuts, seeds, mushrooms, soy o You don’t need very much o Deficiency isn’t much of a problem o Excess is excreted in bile o Absorption based on what the body needs o Function ▯ Antioxidant, reduces free radicals ▯ Helps connective tissue ▯ Neurotransmitter o Deficiency – rare, causes anemia and suppresses immune system o Toxicity – Wilson disease – copper builds up in eyeball and changes the color of the cornea • Manganese o Found in whole grains, cereal, tea, legumes o Controlled by bile o Only 10% of consumed manganese is absorbed o Function – involved in a lot of reactions involving enzymes • Iodine o Saltwater, seafood, iodized salt, molasses, dairy o Goitrogens – found in raw vegetables (decreases bioavailability) o Iodine is stored in the thyroid gland o Thyroxine and triodothyronine are 2 hormones made with iodine o Deficiencies – ▯ Goiter – thyroid gets bigger in an attempt to collect more iodine to make hormones ▯ Cretinism – mental retardation caused by deficiency during pregnancy ▯ Deficiency is endemic (restricted to a specific area) because all of the coasts have access to foods that contain it, but other areas have no access to foods with iodine ▯ In 1924 the US government required all salt companies to put iodine into their salt • Selenium o Found in seafood, meat, nuts, cereal grains o Amount on grains is based on the amount in the soil where they were grown o Readily absorbed o Excreted through the urine o Functions ▯ Glutathione peroxide – contains selenium to stop free radicals ▯ Helps spare vitamin E (vitamin E also gets rid of free radicals) o No established deficiency • Fluoride o Most water is fluorinated o Also found in seafood, tea, seaweed o Absorbed readily, stored in bones and teeth o Promotes bone and dental health Cancer • The #2 leading cause of death in the US • Altered cells grow uncontrollably • A cell’s DNA is altered (by free radicals, UV rays…) • DNA changes cell replication • When thins happens to just one cell, the immune system can attack it • If a cell isn’t killed, it continues to divide • Benign tumors – there is no growth and the tumor is contained • Malignant tumors – cells continue to divide • Metastasize – cancer cells break off and travel to other parts of the body • Factors increasing risk o Low intake of fruits and vegetables o Excessive energy intake (obesity) ▯ The body is stimulated to grow when we eat ▯ The more growth means more room for error and the more fuel bad cells have to grow o Sedentary lifestyle o High intake of processed meats, red meat o Intake of fried foods o High intake of cholesterol o Low intake of calcium and vitamin D o Tobacco consumption • Lung cancer is still very relevant today • Colon cancer is also one of the more common types of cancer • 1 in 2 men will get cancer in their lifetime (mostly prostate cancer) • 1 in 3 women will get cancer (breast cancer is #1)