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Week 13 Notes

by: jjb13n

Week 13 Notes PSY 4930

GPA 2.54

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Affective Neuroscience
Dr. Wen Li
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by jjb13n on Friday November 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 4930 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Wen Li in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Affective Neuroscience in Psychlogy at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 11/27/15
  Week 13 Notes  Definition of Memory  ● Memories for emotional events have a persistence and vividness that other memories seem to  lack  ● Memories are constructed  ● NOT a copy/reproduction of past  ● Involves complete reconstruction that draws on various information  ● Medial Temporal Region (especially hippocampus) is involved in consolidation; PFC involved  in encoding and retrieval  ● LTM (Long Term Memory)  ○ Explicit (declarative)  ■ Episodic (biographical events)  ■ Semantic (words, ideas, concepts)  ○ Implicit (nondeclarative)  ■ Procedural (skills)  ■ Emotional conditioning  ■ Priming effect  ■ Conditioned reflex  Stages and Mechanisms/Neural Substrates  ● 3 Stages  ○ Encoding  ■ Perception (temporo​occipital processing)  ■ Attention (OFC​cingulate​audate processing)  ■ Interpretation/Elaboration/rehearsal (PFC processing)  ○ Consolidation/storage  ■ Hippocampus  ■ Sensory Cortex  ○ Retrieval  ■ PFC:  ■ Search process  ■ Information recovery and reactivation  ■ Retrieval monitoring  ■ Subjective experience  ● MTL Memory System: Hippocampal complex memory consolidation  Neocortex vs Hippocampus      ● Stimulus inputs to neocortex  ● Hippocampus stores new memories  ● Neocortex recalls recent memories  ● Neocortex  ○ Slow learning  ○ Integrate new and old info  ○ Permanent storage  ● Hippocampus  ○ Fast learning  ○ Little integration  ○ Temporary storage: new info overwrites old  ○ Capture episodic memories and repetitively allows neocortex to integrate these memories with  existing associations  Emotion modulates Memory and Neural Underpinnings  ● Emotion modulates memory at all 3 stages  ● Arousal is more relevant than valence (both positive & negative events are remembered better  than neutral events  ● Emotion can modulate both implicit and explicit memory  ● Processes  ○ Motivational/affective value guides encoding  ■ Threat grabs attention then perception  ■ Affective schemas shift encoding of info (to maintain negative seview, depressives tend to  miss the event details and recall overly general episodes)  ○ Motivational/affective value guides storage  ■ People rehearse emotional events more, resulting in stronger emotional memory storage  ■ Emotion regulation: reappraisal and moderated interpretation can shift the reconsolidation and  re​torage of memory  ○ Motivational/affective value shifts memory retrieval  ■ Affective congruency: Recalled pain levels of the past shift in the direction of the current pain  level  ■ Goal congruencey: We retrieve info consistent with our schemas and core beliefs  ● Underpinning Systems of Emotional Memory  ○ System for Controlled Emotion Processing  ■ vmPFC/OFC (representing motivational value)  ■ ACC: goal orientation and maintenance      ■ Lateral PFC: volitional emotion regulation; cognitive reppraisal  ○ System for Emotional Memory Processing  ■ Amygdala  ■ Basal Ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra, glubus palidus, subthalamic nucleus)  Reconsolidation, Labile Period, Memory Erasure  ● Reconsolidation  ○ Extinction can “overwrite” or update a fear memory if it occurs within the window following  retrieval of the memory  ○ Each time we retrieve a memory, it is reconsolidated; protein synthesis inhibitors can block  this process  ○ Immediate extinction deficit (Maren, 2013)  ■ Administering extinction trials soon after Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats, mice, and  humans results in minimal fear suppression  ■ Brain systems involved in encoding and retrieving extinction memories functionoptimally  under stress  ○ Later Extinction  ■ Update fear memory upon retrieval and reconsolidation  ● Labile Period  ○ Continually undergoing a chemical, physical, or biological change/breakdown  ● Memory Erasure  ○ Reactivation of fear memory using single CS  ○ Extinction training immediately after CS  ○ Reevaluation of CS as nonthreatening  ■ Rats didn’t show spontaneous recovery, renewal, or reinstatement  ○ Unlearning vs inhibition of fe erasing fear memory by modifying the content  Human Applications  ● PTSD and Anxiety Disorders  ○ Augment extinction pharmacologically or with reconsolidatibased therapy  ● Childhood Traumas  ○ Erase fear memories (brain plasticity)  ● Drug Addiction  ○ ExtinctionReconsolidation manipulations  ● Depression and other disorders  ○ New therapeutic approaches      Basic Biochemical Basis of Long​ Term Memory  ● NMDA Receptor  ○ Calcium entry triggers protein synthesis critical for LTM  ■ 1. Glutamate binds with NMDA receptor> Calcium influx  ■ 2. → Protein synthesis signaling  ■ 3. → RNA transcribed to protein  ■ 4. → structural changes (more AMPA receptors)  ● Glutamate  ○ Neuronal firing causes release of glutamate, which binds w/ AMPA receptors, in Na+/K+  influx and postsynaptic depolarization  ■ The changed membrane potential forces out Mg2+, and channel is no longer blocked and so  Ca2+ enters the cell  Emotion​related Hormonal Modulation in Memory Formation/Consolidation  ● Stress hormones released from the adrenal medulla (epinephrine) and adrenal cortex activate  noradrenergic systems in amygdala  ● βAdrenergic receptor blockade in healthy adults during encoding impairs emotional memory  ● Adrenal stress hormones modulate consolidation of recent info  ○ Epinephrine/Norepinephrine  ■ Release of NE within amygdala is essential in mediating the effects of epinephrine and  glucocorticoids on memory consolidation  ○ Glucocorticoids (Cortisol)  ■ Glucocorticoids released by emotionally arousing training enhance storage of recent  experiences  ○ HPA  ■ The amygdala triggers the release of stress hormones by way of the HPA axis, which feed back  onto memory consolidation and storage sites as well as the amygdala itself to enhance memory  over longer time intervals  ○ Amygdala mediates these hormonal effects (increased arousal level and increased sympathetic  response; release of epinephrine can modulate amygdala involvement in memory)  Implicit vs Explicit Memory (Amygdala vs Hippocampus)      ● Hippocampus  ○ Explicit memory about the emotional situation (contextual memory)  ● Amygdala  ○ Implicit emotional (fear) memory  ○ Amygdala regulates consolidation of explicit LTM by modulating neuroplasticity in other  brain regions The Neurobiological System Modulating Emotion Memory  ● Paths mediating the influence of emotion on memory ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇  ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇  ⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇⬇  ● Double Dissociation     


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