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Week 9 notes

by: Taylor McAvoy

Week 9 notes Com 201 A

Taylor McAvoy
GPA 3.5
Intro to comm 1
Ekin Yasin

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About this Document

This week I have one set of regular lecture notes for Monday and a panopto recording set of notes fr Wednesday lecture as it was moved to an online class. I also have notes on the documentary we we...
Intro to comm 1
Ekin Yasin
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor McAvoy on Friday November 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Com 201 A at University of Washington taught by Ekin Yasin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Intro to comm 1 in Communication Studies at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 11/27/15
Lecture 13 Monday November 23 2015 How active are audiences What is the role of interpretation What is our contribution to the viewing process How can audiences actively engage with media content Multistep process of media active audience meaning and representation Hall interpretation social context of interpretation collective action encoding decoding polysemy EX Donald Trump won39t rule out warrantless searches ID cards for American Muslims Power of words Rhetoric Arguments EX Two pizza shop owners were stopped form boarding their ight because they were carrying a box of backlava and speaking Arabic Anonymous and their war on lsis Hacktivism online tools social justice Action is being take and being effective online Clicktivism the idea that you can click to donate or share content and feel good like you did your part Connective action more formally congregated online to form congregations of ine and coordinate physically coming together Awareness think productively How do media images help create identities What role do producers play in this process When we are aware of disparities in representation do we react EX Seventeen magazine give girls images of real girls According to Stuart Hall making of media messages follows a multistep process production circulation distributionconsumption and reproduction The receiver is a potential creator of their own content in response to media Active Audience Belief in intelligence and autonomy of people Cynicism about power of media Identity and media Not dismissing people39s agency Clip Meaning and construction in media Stuart Hall Born in Kingston Jamaica Pioneer in cultural studies open university of England Issues of representation British Multiculturalism Without language meaning could not be exchanged no representation The practices that produce meaning symbolic work gives and communicates meaning Signifying practices those that carry meaning Personal communication is the most prominent means of circulating meaning Power who circulates the meaning Meaning and Absence The meaning facts bring out what is absent in the media image The facts bring to light and make us think about the facts that aren39t there EX Black Olympic medalist for Britain Image of him with the Union Jack ag around his shoulders He is not the kind of person we think of when we think of stereotypical British people Broadcasting structures must yield encoded messages in the form of meaningful discourse must pass under the discursive rules of language for its product to be reaHzed Before media can have an effect however de ned satisfy a need or be put to a use it must rst be appropriated as a meaningful discourse and be meaningfully decoded Encoding the messages embedded in media by the producers Decoding how the audience understands these messages lnterpretation meaning of media messages are not xed They are constructed by audience members Social context of interpretation Audience activity is around everyday life Talking about shows writing about shows Collective action engagement to stand up against media representations EX Game of thrones not much diversity Relationship of meaning to social position There are differences amongst different social groups in the process of encodingdecodingquot Marley39s study of Nationwide 1980 Difference of interpretation across different socioeconomic classes Difference of interpretation bankers vs workers Contingency of time According to Stuart Hall the way in which we decipher and make meanings out of images reveal the culture in the works in a given time Role of culture Denotation connotation Multiplicity of meanings Polysemy there are multiple meanings of an image at any given time Part 2 Next steps of ideological interpretation political engagement with media dominant hegemonic position negotiated code globally contrary way spoof ads commercialization of childhood lnclass conversation Clip Old spice commercial 1 What is the encoded message What is the decoded message 2 Did you engage with the preferred meaning 3 Are the stereotypes Meaning structures Assumptions HIw is meaning created maltomcawrp Social context of media use You can be an active audience whilst still being entertained Reading the romance Janice A Radway EX Taylor Swift Shake it off Dominant Hegemonic position taking the position that producers intended Operating with the preferred meaning Position of the producers and agree Negotiated code Still embrace the mode of representation May recognize position of producer Understand mismatch Recognizes portrayal of stereotypes Understand but still like and choose to watch Globally contrary way lnsert agency We can delocalize the messages Context and dangers Consumersaudience Importance of agency Clip consuming kids the commercialization of childhood 40 billion every year is kids spending 700 billion of adult spending every year is in uenced by kids Kids have purchasing in uence The nag factor maximizes the amount of time kids ask for something Kids are buried in media ads and multitasking more and more Kids see over 3000 commercial messages a day This convinces kids life is about buying and getting Sugar cereals and candies in uences some to try to ban children39s advertising The toy and sugar industries took it to congress 1980 Congress passed the FTC improvement act FTC no longer had any authority to regulate children39s advertising 19805 love with the market and deregulation pushed this 1984 the Regan administration deregulated children39s marketing 4 a year growth in children39s ads before 1980 35 growth in children39s ads after 1980 It was now ok to make a TV show dedicated to selling a toy Clicker questions NY Times new virtual reality technology was created to offer readers new fun interactive games that will entertain them True The following are technologically capable pro cient individuals who use tools of technology for activities and interventions in social justice A Clicktivists B Activists C D Hackers I see myself as an active audience member True 67 False 33 Panopto recording for lecture 14 Monday November 23 2015 Media and society D Media political economy media effects Representation of race Media and ideology D media and diversity Representation of gender Inclusion presenceabsence Representation of class The Qu39osby show a new show that seeks to mock islamophobia but has a troubling de nition of what it means to be a 39normal39 Muslim There is islamophobia because of the lack of representation of what it means to be Muslim and when there is representation it is cast in negative light and of negative scary stereotypes The comedy still can39t escape from the stereotypes and the show is still only online Overview 0 Media and representation of the social world 0 Media inclusion roles and control 0 Common stereotypes of race gender class in media Key questions Do media represent the real world accurately How do social inequalities in terms of race gender and class translate to media images 0 What are the common stereotypes of certain race gender class in media Where do those stereotypes come from Issues in media representation Media representations are not reality Media often do not try to re ect the real world Ambiguity in de ning what is real Do media rms have the obligation to re ect the reality Overall mainstream media historically have reproduced social inequalities based on race gender and sexual orientations Signi cance of media content Content as a re ection of producers Content as a re ection of audience preference Content as a re ection of society in general Content as an in uence on audiences Content as a selfenclosed text Studying content is the most commonly used media analysis Content as a re ection of producers Focus on entertainment industry Producers drawing on their own experiences Creative personnel disproportionately 30somethings with kids uppermiddle class depictions of family life Content as a re ection of audience preference Giving people what they want Move beyond content analysis and study audience preferences EX Arrow and The Flash similar characters and narratives because it39s what the audiences want But if the audiences have never experienced content with complex narratives or not experience with different narratives how could they know if they like it or want it Content as a re ection of society in general Media content as gauge of social norms values and interest of society in general Making assumptions about society EX Friends and Master of None Content as an in uence on audiences Social in uences on audiences Media effects EX The Walking Dead How violent content in uences audiences Content as Selfenclosed text we can treat the content as analysis itself and interpret various plot lines is it a re ection of something Encodingdecoding Semiology EX The Walking Dead Class and media Targeting af uent people For advertisers quotsome people are more valuable than othersquot Newspaper strategies 0 Reducing circulation to increase pro ts 0 quotstylequot sections The issues of race and gender need to be combined with class EX NY Time style section NY Times T magazine targets a particular af uent population small readership but not a problem They have been a target of criticism and justi ed by their general business Certain classes are more desirable in media than others EX the royals and keeping up with the kardashians Shows about celebrities or people with glamorous lives Media representations of class Familybased situation comedies Underrepresentation of working class families Overrepresentation of glamourous professional jobs Negative stereotypical portrayal of working class Implications Working class individuals are blamed for their failure Ignore structural problems As you are watching television this holiday weekend keep note of patterns of representation of class on television and movies Documentary Class Dismissed Please watch for What are the common ways television bases its class characters Documentary Class Dismissed We see TV as just entertainment so we think we need to take its image of the working class seriously How TV frames the working class A project by Pepi Leistyna Class matters We lack a conceptual framework of the working class Class based on income occupation lifestyle education expectations Economic class income and accumulated wealth Political class the power to in uence The public and political process Cultural class education taste lifestyle known as cultural capital Always have a working class as long as there is capitalism New realities often female and immigrant are working class Working class is the majority and identify with the stigma Class consciousness whether you understand yourself as a social political economic actor Class politics people share a common experience as a working class but they don39t have a common experience because the working class is racially and gender segmented Class warfare initiated by corporate elite Not many like to talk about class The American dream machine TV evolved as a commercially sponsored medium and then had a hand in actual production Advertisers rede ned the meaning of the American dream from the pursuit for better life to more consumerism to be happy and access to higher social access Associating products with upper and middle class lifestyles would increase sales Products tied to success and happiness Proliferated in the 605 and 705 Begin to see upper middle class shows Economical reason for disappearance of working class There was a economic boom so we saw a better quality of life in general Ideological reason for disappearance of working class cold war unions enable workers to achieve democracy but these efforts become branded as communist We see working class a failure of status From the margins to the middle 19505 the working class was disappearing and blacks and marginalized groups were shown as servants and less class The arrival of more marginalized groups on TV suggested that there is no need for change because TV has room for everyone The perceptions of Ghetto life on TV showed that it wasn39t so bad and happy The ideas of moving on up and selfmade man He proves that black people are successful so there39s no need for welfare or more social action Suggests that they need the help of whites to make it Cosby show normalizes black people form the idea that they weren39t safe people you could be friends with Asian American roles are still small and Latinos too most are still con ned to cable and Spanish networks George Lopez in the middle class Introduces people and trying to comfort whites and be a part of the American Dream Only tie to working class is his mom The ideas are problematic because they veil the exploitation of working class and Latinos Queer characters are often only on TV tentatively and because networks need something new 19905 cautiously opened the door to queer characters changing social conditions Queer rules to being on TV Control your body eat well dress well groom well 0 Appeal to families Acquire the good life in a legit way Working class queer is still absent Women have class TV largely ignores the way women are effective in class The majority of working class jobs are help by women Rarely depicts work as economic necessity 705 and 805 the rise of single headed families and only one show that re ected it Single mothers experience poverty higher than average Most women work in jobs not shown on TV and the working women are underrepresented lmplies that the women in these jobs are their fault Blamed for the disruption of the family just for going to work EX Roseanne 19881997 Image of working class mother who felt she was a great mother and worked around the challenges faced by the working class women Class clowns TV reproduces the believe that workers inadequacies are to blame for their position Ideology that anyone can make it so if you don39t make it its your own fault Reinforce stereotypes that workers don39t succeed because of their personality TV reproduces the believe that workers inadequacies are to blame for their position Ideology that anyone can make it so if you don39t make it its your own fault Reinforce stereotypes that workers don39t succeed because of their personality Stereotypical qualities and characteristics Bad taste lazy slops and not deserving of the ner tastes in life and wouldn39t appreciate them Being working class becomes a lifestyle taste when class in reality is in uenced heavily by social structures It becomes comical when working class try to t into the upper class world because they are so awkward Make over shows about upper class lifestyles and body perfection and house and car make overs Gay representation of upper class where they are allowed to be Lack of intelligence Lovable and laughable buffoon Reproduced with the Flintstones The women rule the roost reversal of gender roles where men are not capable of running the family The bumbling father gives working class women a little more power and knowledge and stability The typical working class household the kids are smarter than the father No interest in education stereotypes Workers are historically the ones who fought for the educational system The reason for stereotypes distract us from reality but they detract from the fact that working class families really do care about the education of their kids Reactionary politics Disinterested in politics This is wrong because in reality they are very interested in politics and change and social issues The upper middle class like to believe they are the enlightened ones Low work ethic The most blatantly untrue stereotype about not striving for achievement The scapegoat of the government for stagnant wages and high pro ts are the working class It gets blamed by society Dysfunctional family values 19805 and 1990s a shift goes to shows with dysfunctional families At the end of Regan and economic turmoil Working class becomes the poster child for bad families and all the problems with the world Gives rise to kids that are smart and make it out no matter what or the opposite deviant Offer a critique of corporate driven society but ends up being selfdestructive rather than transformative Enforces white and black fears that black working class is dangerous Cop show reinforce who is criminal and the naturalness of stereotypes Black people in power still don39t do enough to change this Justi es that 70 of prison population is nonwhite Tells that they are poor and criminal because of their own behaviors We have to understand that there are most problems not under their own control Largest poor people in US are white but not portrayed as such and are usually portrayed as entertainment and subculture Hillbilly image Jeff Foxworthy Red neck is depicted as a lifestyle and choice through culture and country music not where in reality it is economical and not usually of own choosing Republican agenda to attack the poor workers People stereotyped as trailer trash are coached to be overdramatic on the show and displayed the stereotypes and viewed as a spectacle Middle class people do all the things working class people do but are perceived differently Class action Workers face declining standard of living and less job security and larger class gaps Media literacy campaigns have challenged the FCC and congress to democracy the airways and try to get media to re ect the challenges workers face and facilitate change Media activists need to be connected to a larger diverse movement of working class people Also needs to be a ght for racial and social equality as well as economic equality Restraining capital and large corporations who control the detriment of the American people Have to change the inhuman situation we live in to change these depictions


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