Class Notes SOC 2101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Welch on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 2101 at George Washington University taught by Antwan Jones in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 154 views. For similar materials see Social Research Methods in Sociology at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 01/30/15
social research methods 1127 chapter 3 the ethics and politics of social research ethical issues in social research 0 ethical websters conforming to the standards of conduct of a given profession or group how can we differentiate between moral ethics and methodological ethics 0 voluntary participation no one should be forced to participate example notecards on rst day of class how to ensure voluntary participation What are some concerns with this method of collecting information from students 0 No harm to participants ASA de nes as quotminimal riskquot People being research should never be injured physically mentally emotionally socially psychologically Tuskegee syphilis study Zimbardos Stanford prison experiment Milgrims obedience study Babbies church women study Is it possible to eliminate 100 of risk 0 Informed consent a norm in which subjects based their voluntary participation in research projects on a full understanding of the possible risk involved Identify all sources of harm real and potential 0 Anonymity and con dentiality Anonymity guaranteed in a research project when neither the researcher nor the readers of the ndings can identify a diven re5ponse with a given responder Con dentiality guaranteed when the research can identify a given persons response but promise not to do so publicly Deception Deception within a social research needs to be justi ed by scienti c or administrative concerns 0 Under what conditions is deception okay in social research 0 Debrie ng interviewing subjects to learn about their experience of participation in the project 0 Analysis and reporting Ethical obligations to colleagues in the scienti c community All results must be reported positive and negative All limitation must be admtted 0 Institutional reviews book IRB a panel of facult who review all research proposals involving human subjects so that they can guarantee that the subjects rights and interests will be protected exceptions 0 TWO ETHICAL CONTROVERSIES 0 Trouble in the tea room laud Humphreys Studied homosexual activities in public What ethical issues are in question Is it methodologically ethical o Observing human obedience Stanley milgram Participating members imitated a laboratory based WWII controversy Which ethical issues are in question Is it methodologically unethical m objectivity and ideology 0 science achieves objectivity through intersubjectivity ie multiple scientists with different subjectivities should come to the same conclusions 0 weber 1925 sociology needs to be unencumbered by personal values if it is to make a special contribution to society quotpublic sociologyquot idea that we should be doing more than just research must translate that research so everyone can bene t and publish for the public eye paradigms model or frames of reference through which to observe and understand 0 to prove login not explain theories seek to provide logical explanations 1 theories prevent our being taken in by ukes quotpatterns happenquot 2 theories make sense of observed patterns 3 theories shape and direct research efforts o macrotheory a theory aimed at understanding the quotbig picturequot of institution whole societies and the interactions among societies con ict theory functionalism ex interlocking directorates o microtheory a theory aimed at understanding social life on the intimate level of individuals and their interactions symbolic interactionism ex dating behavior just deliberations student faculty interactions 0 mesotheory referencing an intermediate level between macro and micro studying organizations communities and social categories social disorganization theory or quotbroken windowsquot theory 0 ethnomethodology garfinkel people continually creating social structure through their actions and interactions creating their realities ethnomethology methodology of the people 0 the study of everyday methods that people use for the production of social order 0 examples how people create consensus with divergent opinions gender 0 feminist paradigms feminists call attention to aspects of social life that other paradigms do not reveal concerned with the treatment of women and the experience of oppression o feminist standpoint theory women have knowledge about their status and experience that is nota available to men evolved variations of female experiences produce third wave feminism critical race theory 0 WEB DuBois roots in civil rights movement African americans lived their lives through quotdual consciousnessquot l both as americans and africans 0 Bell 1980 Interest convergencemajority group members will only support the interests of minorities when those actions also support the interests of the majority group Rational objectivity o Asch experiment 1958 A group of subjects is presented with a set of lines on a screen and asked to identify the two lines that are equal in length Others in the group identify A and C as the correct answer while you know that B is the correct answer Deductiveinductive o the traditional model of science theory hypothesis testable expectation about empirical reality derived from a theory what is observed in the real world if the theory is correct operationalization developing operational de nitions or specifying the exact operations involved in measuring a variable operational de nition the concrete and speci c de nition of something in terms of the operations by which observations are to be categorized observations specifying the exact observations involved in measuring a variable 0 hypothesis generation 0 to generate and test a hypothesis specify variable you think are related neighborhood SES x and obesity Y o hypothesize direction of variables l hypothesize that the lower the SES of a neighborhood that the higher the number of obese people 0 OR hypothesize strength of variable l hypothesize any effects of living in a neighborhood with low SES x on obesity Y will be greater in areas where there are fewer ways for individuals to be politically involved Z
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