Weeks 10-12 lecture notes
Weeks 10-12 lecture notes HIS 101 Cr.3
UW - L
Popular in Global Origins of the Modern World
Popular in History
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Hansen on Saturday November 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 101 Cr.3 at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse taught by Dr. Gerald Iguchi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Global Origins of the Modern World in History at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse.
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Date Created: 11/28/15
I Opium and Capital Accumulation 0 18th century profit to English East India Company from 1757 came from combination of relatively direct exploitation taxation without representation and basic merchant activity buy what is abundant in India there and sell it in England or other places where it is scarce 0 By 19th century as the industrial revolution with textile manufacture as leading industry affected Britain the colony of India slowly transformed from multiple economies including diversified agriculture preindustrialization manufacture cottage industry tribal exploitation of forests and grazing land to increasing concentration on cash crops what one cannot eat or at least what is not particularly nutritious but what linked India with web of global commerce indigo blue dye raw cotton jute for twine sugar tea opium 0 Everything was reorganized GLOBALLY for openended accumulation land people British people and Indian people were reformed and made useful 0 Whatever was not useful in this sense was chastised as immoral in England especially or eliminatedexterminated elsewhere 0 Example In India tribal in forests and hills and nomadic people mobile people had their forests and grazing land destroyed or enclosed made into somebody else39s private property the private property of a select few and they were forced to settle down get jobs that pay cash such as working on opium or tea plantations that were often constructed on what was previously forest or grazing land in order to pay rent and taxes etc 0 Such processes were represented as virtue building think Robinson and Friday 0 This set up the raw material agricultural and extractive mining labor market India Industry and industrial labor market England finished manufactures market India triangle but the triangle is oversimplification 0 First the masters of capital in England and some very few Indians and Chinese profited predominantly not England or any other nation as a whole 0 Secondly the process involved the whole world and every place that could be profitably incorporated was as sources of raw materials sources of finished goods industrial or pre consumer markets for now often overly abundant commodities and venues for employment of capital for example as investment in the slave trade or railways and telegraph in Europe or these and plantationsextractive enterprises in the Americas Asia Africa 0 The logic of accumulation of capital despite the moral high standards of any actual individuals involved stipulated that anything was justified if it led to this accumulation 0 Money that might have been saved by virtuous individuals in Europe because they believed saving in itself to be virtuous translated into land and seeds and labor in India which translated into opium that could be transported to China where it could translated into tea or porcelain or silk which could be transported to England or anywhere else inside or outside the British Empire where it could be translated back into money which could be translated into such things as bibles pianos paintings homes museums gardens gourmet meals university educations missionary activity scientific research etc etc along with if need be to keep the whole ow of translation and transformation owing whiskey warships firearms and salaries for mercenaries 0 Money allows the connection or conjugation of unlike things in addition to the seemingly endless accumulation of capital 0 By the 1830s this process resulted in about 2 million Chinese opium addicts centered in the south around Canton Guangzhou which the Qing state had designated as a place where the British and other Europeans could trade 0 The process also resulted in the wealth of private companies that had broken with the East India Company which was relatively less willing to openly deal in illegal substances such as J ardine Matheson amp Co 0 The Qing in Beijing the north were no fools and they realized the detrimental effect of opium upon people as well as how this adversely affected the prosperity of their empire opium reversed the ow of silver from West to China to China to West AND in October 1838 the Qing emperor designated Lin Zexu to be a special envoy to the south ll Commissioner Lin the Qing Emperor39s Drug Czar 0 Lin Zexu 18751850 was from Fujian further up coast had illustrious career as GovernorGeneral of two separate provinces 0 Experience dealing with opium as governorgeneral of Hubei 0 Lin came to Canton in March 1839 and used threat and force against the mostly British some American and a few Indian opium traders and their Chinese merchant contacts 0 March 25 Lin had foreign merchants under siegeas hostage in their factories trade outpostscompounds demanding that they hand over their opium Lin had suspended trade and boxed the merchants in with soldiers and naval patrols 0 After 47 long days Charles Eliot British Chief Superintendent of Trade in China forced the merchants to begin doing so transferring more than 2 and 12 million pounds of the drug 0 Eliot promised British government compensation for the in neighborhood of 12 million dollars worth of opium handed over which he had no authority to do 0 Lin destroyed the confiscated opium by dissolving it in water with lime and salt stirring it and letting it drain to the sea 0 Lin advised sea creatures to move to deeper water 0 Then Lin wrote his famous letter to Victoria Ill Tensions heightened 0 July 12 British and some American sailors got drunk at a villageprovisioning point near what became Hong Kong and they beat up people killing a man 0 Chinese authorities wanted justice but British tried some men under authority of Elliot 0 The convicted were sent back to UK where they were released because of notion that Elliot did not have authority to try them under British law in fact he did 0 But Lin did not accept British authority in any case so he intercepted supplies to British vessels poisoned wells along the coast and asked the Portuguese to expel the British from nearby Macau 0 British could still not trade in Canton and were hanging out around Hong Kong Bay before Hong Kong city existed 0 There was shooting incident between Chinese and British vessels on September 0 Lin assembled a eet of 80 junks and fireships at mouth of Pearl AKA Canton River incorrectly believing them to be relatively invincible 0 Elliot demanded British right to buy tea at this time 0 Lin responded that British had to agree to a stop dealing opium b obey all Chinese laws and c submit to the legal jurisdiction of Qing or else leave and never come back 0 November there was battle between two British frigates and the Chinese ee 0 The Chinese were routed with 2 vessels destroyed and several damaged 0 Lin reported this as a success to the emperor 0 Emperor responded that Lin had better stop all opium from coming into the country not just at Canton IV War and Aftermath 0 Back in Britain the opium trade was controversial with some humanitarian lefties arguing that it was a vile thing like the slave trade which had just been abolished in the 1833 and with those who profited from it big opium arguing that it was not so bad for one after all like big tobacco39s more recent claims that smoking does not cause cancer etc 0 But the rights of capitalprivate property carried the day with the notion that the Qing owed Britain compensation for destroyed property opium and this is what directly motivated the war that began in 1840 0 In June thousands of British troops along with steampowered gunships sailed up from Singapore British base since 1819 at tip of Malay peninsula that supplanted Portuguese Dutch power over straights between Indian and Pacific basins 0 Around 7069 naval personnel 5000 British troops 7000 Indian troops presumably company mercenaries Altogether about 19 or 20 thousand hardware 0 The British used their overwhelming force to blockade the PearlCanton Estuary and seized important points etc along Chinese coasts and rivers including tax barges 0 Lin was relieved of duty in late August 1841 0 Treaty of Nanjing 0 Between Qing and Queen not company Opened 5 ports to trade not just Canton including Shanghai With British right to send consuls to these ports British right to set tariffs at these ports 0 O O O 6 million silver dollars compensation for lost opium 0 12 million dollars compensation for cost of war 0 5 interest for money not paid in timely manner 0 British withdrawal from Nanjing and Grand Canal waterway connecting south to north but staying in two other ports until full payment Hong Kong as crown colony in perpetuity later agreement to give back in 1997 Extraterritoriality not abolished until 1943 Opium Legalized for British trading in 1858 Examples of AngloSaxon Decency British Liberty 0 0000000 000 0 Question of sovereignty is relatively unclear but notions of Parliamentary and thus indirectly people39s sovereignty go back to seventeenth century with increasing idea that monarch symbolizes will of people instead of having actual political power 1215 Magna Charta required king to extend rights to subjects including habeas corpus the right to appeal imprisonment Earliest parliament in England advisors of monarchs approve taxes From 1295 representation of burgesses burghers bourgeoisie ie three estates Elected by propertied people more or less Not democracy but step in that direction 1341 split into Commons and Lords 1628 Petition of Right set civil liberties 16421646 Civil War between forces of Commons and crown this is England39s bourgeois revolution and it ended in the settlement of increasingly extremely limited monarchy Habeas Corpus Act 1679 1688 Glorious Revolution leads to a Bill of Rights 1701 Act of Settlement 1707 Act of Union political union of England Wales Scotland thereafter UK Ireland 0 O 00 From 1169 Norman knights rulers of England from 1066 invade Ireland and settle 1494 English Parliament has to approve Irish law there remains inside the pale around Dublin of English culture and outside the pale Irish culture With Reformation NormanEnglishScottish mixed ruling class in Ireland becomes predominantly Protestant stays this way 17th19th centuries small Protestant ruling class large Catholic majority Irish are seen by British as just as much an inferior race as any other on planet 1542 Crown of Ireland act makes monarchs of England the monarchs of Ireland 1801 Kingdom of Great Britain contains UK and Ireland 1922 most of Ireland becomes independent but Northern Ireland remains part of UK Franchise EnglandBritain progressively ensured the personal liberty at least of propertied males the bourgeoisie 40 shillings in property in 1432 not adjusted for in ation increased franchise From 16881832 less than 10 of adult males could vote Reform in 1832 increased voters to 14 of adult males In 1867 all men with an address could vote 1872 secret ballot 1918 and 1920 in steps women got the vote Abolition of slavery 1833 In general people with economic power capital had political power increasingly from at least 17th century onwards American Freedom Constitution of the United States 1787 preamble guarantees sovereignty of the people Bill of Rights ratified 1791 Franchise Property qualifications for adult males varied by state until 18121860 period NonWhite males 1870 but in practice things differed until 1960s of course Women 1920 Emancipation Proclamation 1862 In general people with economic power capital had political power increasingly from beginnings of the republic onwards ll United States Expansion of AngloSaxon Decency in Nineteenth Century 0 O 0000 0 Texas Declaration of Indpendence 1835 and War of independence 1836 MexicanAmerican War began US acquired Pacific Northwest and Californians declare Independence 1846 Treaty of GuadalupeHidalgo US gained New Mexico Arizona Utah Nevada California and parts of Colorado Wyoming Oklahoma and Kansas Civil War makes Union solid 18611865 Alaska purchase 1867 Transcontinental railway and telegraph complete by 1869 American missionaries turned into sugar plantation owners staged coup against constitutional monarchy with help of US navy and marines setting up Republic of Hawaii 1898 which lasts until territory 1901 SpanishAmerican War began in Cuba 1897 US enlisted forces of Emilo Aguinaldo in Philippines promising help with liberation US forced keep Filipinos out of Manila victory Aguinaldo declares first Philippine Republic in countryside US signed Treaty of Paris with Spain buying the Philippines 1898 O CO US also got control of much of CaribbeanCentral America Guam and other Pacific Islands In the Philippines there ensued the PhilippineAmerican War 18991902 Mission Accomplished Moros Muslims in south did not surrender until 1914 US fought scorched earth antiinsurgency Infamously 1902 General Jake quotHowlingquot Smith on Samar I quotI want no prisoners I wish you to kill and burn the more you kill and burn the better it will please mequot He directed that Samar be converted into a quothowling wildernessquot All persons who have not surrendered and were capable of carrying arms were to be shot Who was capable Anyone over ten years of age according to Smith Admission Water cure Article 1906 Moro Massacre under orders of General Leonard Wood in Bud Dajo JoloSulu No Americans killed900 Moros killed most unarmed including women and children Sitting ducks in a crater Article Reasons Monroe Doctrine 1823 those are our mostly Catholic and mostly Brown people and their territory is ours so stay away Slogan of manifest destiny originating with journalist John O39Sullivan 1845 began the concept with The Great Nation of Futurity 1839 I The American people having derived their origin from many other nations and the Declaration of National Independence being entirely based on the great principle of human equality these facts demonstrate at once our disconnected position as regards any other nation that we have in reality but little connection with the past history of any of them and still less with all antiquity its glories or its crimes On the contrary our national birth was the beginning of a new history the formation and progress of an untried political system which separates us from the past and connects us with the future only and so far as regards the entire development of the natural rights of man in moral political and national life we may confidently assume that our country is destined to be the great nation of futurity Concept of manifest destiny was crystallized in this painting by John Gast 1872 In key year of 1898 when US supported coup in Hawaii and took over the Philippines Indiana US senator Albert Beveridge made his famous The March of the Flag Speech in which he said that I The Opposition tells us that we ought not to govern a people without their consent I answer The rule of liberty that all just government derives its authority from the consent of the governed applies only to those who are capable of selfgovernment We govern the Indians without their consent we govern our territories without their consent we govern our children without their consent How do they know that our government would be without their consent Would not the people of the Philippines prefer the just humane civilizing government of this Republic to the savage bloody rule of pillage and extortion from which we have rescued them 0 In reaction to American behavior in the PhilippineAmerican war the Manila correspondent of the Philadelphia Ledger reported in 1901 to a public that had generally gotten a sanitized version of events on the other side of the world I The present war is no bloodless engagement our men have been relentless have killed to exterminate men women children prisoners and captives active insurgents and suspected people from lads of ten up the idea prevailing that the Filipino as such was little better than a dog Our soldiers have pumped salt water into men to make them talk and have taken prisoners people who held up their hands and peacefully surrendered and an hour later without an atom of evidence to show that they were even insurrectos stood them on a bridge and shot them down one by one to drop into the water below and oat down as examples to those who found their bulletloaded corpses 0 On the other hand when General Leonard Wood cabled President Teddy Roosevelt celebrating his victory over Filipino Muslims he wrote The enemy numbered six hundred including women and children and we abolished them utterly leaving not even a baby alive to cry for its dead mother This is incomparably the greatest victory that was ever achieved by the Christian soldiers of the United States and Roosevelt39s response was to praise the brilliant feat of arms and the excellent way Wood had upheld the honor of the American ag 0 Roosevelt believed that such means more than justified the end of spreading Anglo Saxon decency HIGH IMPERIALISM AND THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA 0 High imperialism 0 Second industrial revolution and the scramble for Africa 0 2nd IR latter half of 19th cWWI 19141918 quotage of synergyquot Electriciation intensified mass production amp perfection of assembly line interchangeable parts inexpensive steel internal combustion engine and petroleum industry machine tools TaylorismFordism and quotscientific managementquot automobile Karl Benz patent 1886 and first Ford car 1896 transcontiental telegraphy fist functional telegraph 1819 electrochemicals aluminum chlorine sodium hydroxide and magnesium Chemical industry in general pharmaceuticals photographic film agricultural chemicals standardized railways across the planet financing of which led to Wall StreetNYSE rubber synthetic dyes radio Telephone 1875 0 Most important places US Japan Germany Belgium United Kingdom Rest of Europe 0 Names Thomas Edison General Electric Heinrich Hertz electromagnetic waves Frank Sprague DC motors Nikola Tesla AC motors Rudolf Diesel guess what kind of engine Andrew Carnegie Carnegie Steel J P Morgan finance John D Rockefeller Standard Oil 0 Important companies BASF and Bayer German General Electric Ford Mitsubishi 1870 first automobile 1917 General Motors 1908 General competition driven by need to find ways to accumulate capital the need for tropical raw materials such as various minerals amp chemicals amp rubber and the discovery of antimalarial applications of quinine originally used by Quechua of Peru to halt shivering around 1850 lead to quotscramble for Africaquot which had in its interior previously been known as the quotWhite man39s gravequot By 1890s in AsiaPacific Dutch in Dutch East Indies Indonesia French in French Indochina 1887 Vietnam Tonkin Annam Cochinchina Laos Cambodia Pondicherry city in India British in India crown colony after 1858 India Pakistan Bangladesh Burma Malaya Malaysia Singapore Ceylon Sri Lanka Hong Kong Australia New Zealand with in uence in Afghanistan Persia Iran Tibet Germans in South Seas late 1880s Portuguese still in Macau and Goa Spanish in Philippines amp Guam since early 19th century Russia all the way to Pacific coast and for a while to Alaska with outposts down to northern California by late 19th century Russia in Manchuria northeastern China By 1895 Japan in Taiwan and 1905 Japan in Korea and key parts of Manchuria northeastern China By 1898 United States in Alaska Hawaii Philippines Guam and by 1900 American Somoa CASE OF JAPAN Opening Commodore Matthew Perry39s eet with black ships minstrel show cannons and small train 18534 Unequal treaties O Meiji Restoration and Meiji Period reign of Meiji emperor 18681912 0 Meiji Empress and Emperor as Europeanstyle monarchs 0 Japanese intellectual F ukuzawa Yukichi same guy premodern amp modern Industrialization Constitutional monarchy as government Science and modern education Imperialism SinoJapanese War 1895 and Taiwan RussoJapanese War 1905 and Korea in uence in China US Expansion SpanishAmerican War and takeover of Hawaii 1898 0 US in Philippines Guam Hawaii American Samoa etc in AsiaPacific US in Latin AmericaCaribbean US expansionimperialism Turn of the century Boxer uprising and mass invasion of Beijing 1900 I Leopold of Begium and Congo Free State King of Belgium in 1865 cousin of Queen Victoria International African Association formed by Leo in 1876 1879 International Association of the Congo designed to get Western support for state under Leo which forms 1884 Congo Free State Leo39s private domain1887 Scottish Veterinarian John Dunlop invents rubber tire unlucky for Congolese Slash lather tear pain Quotas for both ivory and rubber Force Publique terror control Armed with modern arms whips Tortured whipped raped etc Human hands as trophies White officers worried about wasting ammunition so hands were proof that people had been killed FP would cut off hands of living Taking of hands became end in itself to quotexplainquot shortfalls in rubber or ivory Sexual organs heads also cut off women and children brutalized at orders of White officers In end 520 million people slaughtered Leopold got very rich and the world was outraged leading to take over of colony by Belgium and colony of Belgian Congo in 1908 Independence as Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1960 ll Dissolving Veneers Taking off Masks Derei cation Definition of REIFICATION O Reification literally means to render thinglike 0 It means transforming process into something static 0 Related to notion of commodity fetishism 0 As if goods in department store appear like magic Where do your things come from P 49 0 quotYou can39t understand How could youwith solid pavement under your feet surrounded by kind neighbours ready to cheer you or fall on you stepping delicately between the butcher and the policeman in the holy terror of scandal and gallows and lunatic asylums how can you imagine what particular region of the first ages a man39s untrammeled feet may take him into by the way of solitude utter solitude without a policeman by the way of silence utter silence where no warning voice of a kind neighbor can be heard whispering of public opinionquot P 4950 regarding Kurtz39s report to International Society for the Suppression of Savage Customs Marlow quotIt gave me the notion of an exotic Immensity ruled by an august Benevolence It made me tingle with enthusiasm This was an unbounded power of eloquence of wordsof burning noble wordsquot Written in later by Kurtz quotExterminate all the brutesquot P 15 Marlow says his aunt thought he was Something like an emissary of light P 34 Marlow overhears manager and another man discussing how quoteach station should be like a beacon on the road towards better things a centre for trade of course but also for humanizing improving instructing P 27 manager has oil painted sketch of woman in blindfold carrying torch against black background 27 With stately movement and sinister look on her face 28 Painted by Kurtz P 36 Marlow calls self quot a blindfolded man set to drive a van over a bad road Nobody likes Kurtz because his methods are unsound but on the other hand he is the best Europe had to offer and a great procurer of ivory Ill The Actual Heart of Darkness Throughout the story darkness light grey lots and lots of greyfoglack of clarityambiguity In Antwerp P 723 quotShe came forward all in black with a pale head oating towards me in the duskquot P 73 The room seemed to have grown darker as if all the sad light of the cloudy evening had taken refuge on her forehead This fair hair this pale visage this pure brow seemed surrounded by an ashy halo from which the dark eyes looked out at me P 74 quotI listened The darkness deepened ConradMarlow39s attitude about women P 12 It is queer how out of touch with truth women are They live in a world of their own and there had never been anything like it and never can be It is too beautiful altogether and if they were to set it up it would go to pieces before the first sunset P 48 They the women I mean are out of it should be out of it We must help them to stay in that beautiful world of their own lest ours gets worse Last scene and death imagery P 73 Before the high and ponderous door between the tall houses of a street as still and decorous as a wellkept alley in a cemetery I had a vision of him on the stretcher opening his mouth P 73 The dusk was falling I had to wait in a lofty drawing room with three long windows The tall marble fireplace had a cold and monumental whiteness A grand piano stood massively in a comer with dark gleams on the at surfaces like a somber and polished sarcophagus A high door opened closed I rose Last words Kurtz39s fiance wants to hear his last words I was on the point of crying at her 39Don39t you hear them39 The dusk was repeating them in a persistent whisper all around us in a whisper that seemed to swell menacingly like the first whisper of a rising wind 39The horror The horrorquot 39The last word he pronounced was your name Marlow p 27 I hate detest and can39t bear a liequot Question in the end did Marlow lie Question according to Conrad where or what do you think the heart of darkness is Appendix Coltan the New Ivory 1977 Commodore begins selling PCs that use columbitetantalite coltan bad luck for Congolese again 1998recentlynow war in Democratic Republic of Congo financed by and in some ways over control of coltan used in cell phones play stations laptops 80 of world reserves in eastern DRC site of Heart of Darkness War has caused at least about 38 million deaths Rebels and supporters Rwanda and Uganda fight kill enslave rape decapitate displacing people from their land all for control of coltan and to get coltan mined quotAll of it winds up bought by just three companies Cabot Inc of the United States Germany39s HC Starc and China39s Nigncxia the only firms with processing plants to turn coltan into the coveted tantalum powder The 39magic powder39 is then sold to Nokia Motorola Compaq Alcatel Ericsson and Sony for use in a wide assortment of everyday productsquot 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