Chapter 13 Notes
Chapter 13 Notes PSYC-1000-02
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by LSTEARNS Notetaker on Saturday November 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-1000-02 at Tulane University taught by Hebert, Thomas in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 11/28/15
Chapter 13: Personality Definitions: - Personality: unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions - Traits: relatively stable personal characteristics used to describe someone o Early Trait Theorists: Allport, Cattell o Modern Trait Theorists: McCraw and Costa’s Five-Factor Model (FFM) Five-Factor Model: used to describe human personality 1. Openness: original and open to new ideas vs. conventional and narrow in interests 2. Conscientiousness: responsible and organized vs. irresponsible and careless 3. Extroversion: sociable and talkative vs. withdrawn and quiet 4. Agreeableness: trusting and good-natured vs. suspicious and ruthless 5. Neuroticism: emotionally unstable and moody vs. emotionally stable and easygoing Evaluating Trait Theories - Pro: o Evolutionary and cross-cultural studies support five-factor model o Five-factor model helps describe and organize personality characteristics using the fewest number of traits - Con: o Lacks explanation and specificity PSYCHOANALYTIC/PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES - Psychoanalytic Theories: examines how unconscious mental forces interplay with thoughts, feelings, and actions o Key Figures: Founder: Freud Darwin influenced Freud in: o Animalistic past o Struggle to survive: struggle within the mind Neo-Freudians: Adler, Jung, Horney Levels of Consciousness: o Conscious: thoughts or motives person is currently aware of or remembering o Preconscious: thoughts, motives, or memories that can be voluntarily brought to mind o Unconscious: thoughts, motives, or memories blocked from normal awareness Personality Structures: o Id: instinctual energy (pleasure principle) o Ego: rational part of the psyche (reality principle) o Superego: the conscience (morality principle) Defense Mechanisms: o Ego’s protective method of reducing anxiety by distorting reality Used everyday, but excessive use is associated with psychopathy Psychosexual Stages of Development - Psychosexual Stages: Freudian idea of five developmental periods key to personality development; all children passed through all stages o Oral Stage: birth-18 months o Anal Stage: 18 months-3 years o Phallic Stage: 3-6 years o Latency Stage: 6 years-puberty o Genital Stage: puberty-adulthood (Modern theorists have additional stages from puberty-death) At each stage, the Id’s pleasure seeking energies focus on specific pleasure areas of the body (erogenous zones) Non-Freudian Theorists: - Adler: suggested that many experience an inferiority complex, which later results in a will-to-power - Jung: proposed an inherited collective unconscious consisting of archetypes - Horney: developed concept of basic anxiety Evaluating Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Theories: Pro: - Historical credit for some Freudian concepts (ex. Defense mechanisms) - Modern psychodynamic theories use more empirical methods Con: - Psychoanalytic concepts difficult to test - Overemphasizes biology and unconscious forces - Inadequate evidence, sexism, and lack of cross-cultural support Freud is given credit for: - Emphasis on early childhood experiences - Children experience pleasure - Animalistic past (influenced by Darwin-notion of struggle) - Role of caregivers (parents/environment) - Therapeutic method ‘The Talking Cure’ o Term first used by Josef Breuer o Referred to type of therapy in which patients discuss their feelings and problems o Leads to ‘catharsis’ o Used effectively after WWII to treat ‘shell shocked’ soldiers with PTSD o Spilled over to give a resurgence to Freudian Theory HUMANISTIC THEORIES: - Personality develops from internal experiences (feelings and thoughts) and individual feelings of basic worth - Human nature is innately good with a positive drive toward self- fulfillment o Key Figures: Rogers and Maslow Rogers: emphasized importance of the self Mental health is related to the degree of congruence between the self-concept and life experiences o More overlap = better adjusted individual Conditional Positive Regard: positive behavior toward a person contingent on behaving in certain ways o Leads to Self-discrepancies Unconditional Positive Regard: positive behavior toward a person with no contingencies attached o Leads to Self-actualization Maslow: Hierarchy of Needs: basic physical necessities must be satisfied before higher- growth needs Self-Actualization: belief in an innate tendency toward inborn drive to develop all one’s talents and capabilities Evaluating Humanistic Theories: Pro: - Many concepts incorporated into successful therapy Con: - Naïve assumptions - Poor testability and inadequate evidence SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORIES - Social Cognitive Theories: o Personality reflects: Individual’s interactions with the environment How people think about the world and interpret what happens to them o Key Figures: Bandura and Rotter Bandura: Self-Efficacy: person’s learned expectation of success Reciprocal Determinism: cognitions, behaviors, and the environment interact to produce personality Rotter: Cognitive expectancies: what people expect to happen Reinforcement value: degree to which people prefer one reinforce to another Locus of control: what people consider as source of life’s rewards and punishments o Internal or external locus of control Evaluating Social-Cognitive Theories: Pro: - Emphasizes how environment affects and is affected by individuals - Meets most standards for scientific research Con: - Narrow focus - Ignores genetic aspects of personality BIOLOGICAL THEORIES - Major Biological Contributors to Personality: o Brain Structures o Neurochemistry o Genetic Factors - Biopsychosocial Model: suggests multiple theories provide different insights and proportionately different contributions to personality Personality Assessment: - Four Methods to Measure Personality: o Interviews o Observations: Setting and personal interactions of greater consideration; much skill required Interviews/Observations Pro: insights Interviews/Observations Con: time, expensive, demand characteristics o Objective Tests (MMPI) – Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory; setting and personal interactions less of a concern; less skill required; more so dependent upon test as opposed to human expertise Paper and pencil multiple-choice survey with 567 items. There are built in scales that measure faking a personality or other unreliable answers Pro: standardized information Con: possible deliberate deception, social desirability bias, diagnostic difficulties, possible cultural bias, inappropriate use o Projective Tests (Rorschach, TAT): Setting and personal interactions of greater consideration; much skill required Presented a series of ambiguous figures and asked to describe figure. Expectation is that one will ‘project’ their unique personality into their answer Pro: insights Con: lower reliability and validity-subjective Cultural Contributions to Personality: - Individualistic Cultures: emphasize individual’s personal needs and goals over those of the group - Collectivistic Cultures: emphasize the needs and goals of the group over the individual
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