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Chapter 14 Notes

by: LSTEARNS Notetaker

Chapter 14 Notes PSYC-1000-02

LSTEARNS Notetaker
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Here are notes for Chapter 14- Psychological Disorders
Introductory Psych
Hebert, Thomas
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by LSTEARNS Notetaker on Saturday November 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-1000-02 at Tulane University taught by Hebert, Thomas in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 11/28/15
Chapter 14- Psychological Disorders Studying Psychological Disorders - Abnormal Behavior: patterns of emotion, thought, and action considered pathological for one or more of four reasons: o Statistical infrequency: very few people are doing it, and you are part of those few doing it  Ex. Believing others are plotting against you o Disability or dysfunction  Ex. Being unable to go to work due to alcohol abuse  Maladaptive: few people are doing it, you are part of the few doing it but it is not harmful  Ex) running 10 miles everyday o Personal distress  Ex. Having thoughts of suicide o Violation of norms  Ex. Shouting at strangers Culture-General Symptoms: shared symptoms across cultures - Ex) worrying, nervousness, trouble sleeping, restless - Anorexia is only apparent in Western Nations o Meaning it is culturally influenced, not biologically Treatment of Mental Disorders - Historical Perspectives: o In ancient times, people believed demons were the cause of abnormal behavior o Historically, the perceived cause and corresponding treatment were linked o In the 1790s, Pinel and others began to emphasize disease, physical illness, and humane treatment, which later developed into the medical model  Bringing people outside once a day created a significant different in their recovery; allowed them to get better at a faster rate  People were previously not allowed to go outside before Pinel Studying Psychological Disorders - Modern psychology includes seven major perspectives on abnormal behavior o Sociocultural: problems reflect cultural values and beliefs o Behavioral: inappropriate conditioning or modeling o Evolutionary: Exaggerated form of an adaptive reaction o Humanistic: Blocked personal growth o Cognitive: Faulty thinking (most common) o Biological: Problems with brain function, genetic predisposition, biochemistry o Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic: Unconscious, unresolved conflict Classifying Abnormal Behavior - The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) o Provides detailed descriptions of symptoms - Five Axes of DSM-I: guidelines for making decisions about symptoms o Personality disorders are the lighter version of mental disorders Importance of Diagnosis - Research populations o We obtain our subjects based on diagnosis  Populations may not be homogeneous if clinicians misdiagnose the subjects - Drug treatment o Different neurotransmitters associated with different mental illnesses - Conformation bias o Tendency to seek out symptoms associated with diagnosis (Rosenhan)  The study concluded that it is clear that we cannot distinguish the sane from the insane in psychiatric hospitals and also illustrated the dangers of dehumanization and labeling in psychiatric institutions Anxiety Disorders - Characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear o GABA: Gamma-aminobutyric acid - Four Major Anxiety Disorders: o Generalized Anxiety Disorder:  Persistent anxiety that is not associated with any particular stimulus; overly concerned with ordinary daily events  Leads to other health problems o Panic Disorder:  Persistent, recurring attacks of anxiety and worry (including future attacks). Involves significant sympathetic arousal and can last for hours o Phobia  Intense, irrational fear of a specific object or situation  Learned and often linked to early childhood experiences  Can be treated well through proper process o Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  Intrusive, repetitive fearful thoughts, urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors (or both)  Obsessions: thoughts  Compulsions: behaviors - Explanations of Anxiety Disorders: o Psychological: faulty cognitions, learning maladaptive behaviors o Biological: evolution, genetics, brain functioning, biochemistry o Sociocultural: environmental stressors, cultural socialization Mood Disorders - Characterized by extreme disturbances in emotional states or affect o 5-HT (serotonin) NE (norepinephrine) - Two Main Types of Mood Disorders: o Major Depressive Disorder:  Depressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleasure, maintain interest in life o Bipolar Disorder:  Repeated episodes of mania and depression; cycle not necessarily even - Explanations of Mood Disorders: o Biological: brain functioning, neurotransmitter imbalances, genetics, evolution o Psychosocial: environmental stressors, disturbed interpersonal relationships, faulty thinking, poor self- concept, learned helplessness, faulty attributions o Monoamine Hypothesis of Depression: depression is the result of too little serotonin and norepinephrine activity in the brain  Reserpine and Tuberculosis o Gender and Cultural Diversity:  Culture-general symptoms for depression (ex. Sad affect, lack of energy)  Women are more likely to suffer depressive symptoms due to biological, psychological, and social forces (Biopsychosocial model) Schizophrenia: severe break from reality. Mean ‘split-mind’ and refers to the split with reality (not multiple personality) - Identical twins are more at risk of developing schizophrenia than fraternal - DA-dopamine is the main neurotransmitter system - Five areas of major disturbance: 1. Perception: hallucinations, auditory most common 2. Language: word salad, flight of speech 3. Thoughts: psychosis, delusions, flight of thought 4. Emotion: exaggerated or flat affect 5. Behavior: usual actions, catalepsy, waxy flexibility, stereotypical Explanations of Schizophrenia: - Biological: genetic predisposition, disruptions in neurotransmitters, brain abnormalities - Psychosocial: stress, disturbed family communication - Gender and Cultural Diversity: numerous culturally general symptoms, but significant differences exist in: o Prevalence, Form, Onset, Prognosis Substance Abuse Disorder - Substance related disorder: abuse of (or dependence on) a mood or behavior-altering drug o Two general groups:  Substance Abuse: interferes with social or occupational functioning  People with substance-related disorders also commonly suffer from other psychological disorders, a condition known as comorbidity  Substance Dependence: shows physical reactions, such as tolerance and withdrawal Dissociative Disorders: - Splitting apart (dis-association) of experiences from memory or consciousness - Types of Dissociative Disorders: o Dissociative Amnesia: occurs when a person blocks out certain information, usually associated with a stressful or traumatic event, leaving him or her unable to remember important personal information o Dissociative Fugue: reversible amnesia for personal identity, including the memories, personality, and other identifying characteristics of individuality; usually involves unplanned travel or wandering, and is sometimes accompanied by the establishment of a new identity o Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)  Presence of two or more distinct personality symptoms in the same person at different times  Previously known as multiple personality disorder Personality Disorders: inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that cause impairment of social and occupational functioning; similar in general nature to but less severe than mental disorders - Types of Personality Disorders o Antisocial Personality Disorder: profound disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others  Key traits: egocentrism, lack of conscience, impulsive behavior, superficial charm  Explanations:  Biological: genetic predisposition, abnormal brain functioning o Amygdala: located in temporal lobes (Coghill)  Psychological: abusive parenting, inappropriate modeling o Borderline Personality Disorder: impulsivity and instability in mood, relationships, and self-image  Explanations:  Biological: genetic inheritance, impaired brain functioning  Psychological: childhood history of neglect, emotional deprivation, abuse o Dysthymic Personality Disorder (sad) o Schizotypal Personality Disorder (unusual) Importance of Context - Behavior does not occur in a vacuum - Importance of context can not be overlooked - Context includes: o Location o Event o ‘Zeitgeist’ or spirit of the times o Historical frame of reference


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