Popular in American History since 1865
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindley on Saturday November 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 1020 at Clemson University taught by Rod Andrew in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see American History since 1865 in History at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/28/15
825 Reconstruction After the Civil War Traumatic time for all almost unknown to America Economic changes average family was thrown into debt Situation even worse for black families many stayed w whites no where else to go Southern whites weren t happy wanted to come back into old life and resume rights realizing slavery was dead but still insisting white supremacy Southern whites typically voted Democratic at this time More political groups Carpet baggers Northerners who came to South after war Some to make pro t some to help some both Almost all Republicans Scalawags Southern whites who sided w carpetbaggers were seen as traitors to the South Black southerners Sought equal civil and political rights wanted land ownership voting rights and an education Radical Republicans not only carpetbaggers those in North who sought full equality for blacks Partly because of political reasons Also because they believed in it and wanted to punish the South sought to remake the South 2 big questions after the war 1 2 What would happen to the eXConfederates especially the leaders What would be the status of the freedman How these s were answered Surrender and parole agreements when the Confederate armies surrendered Quite lenient had to swear to never take up arms on the United States and to go home to obey the laws where they resided No jail no con scation of land etc President Johnson s Amnesty Proclamation 1865 Gave blanket amnesty for the vast majority of eXConfederates granted full citizenship back Excluded Confederate generals high ranking officials and those who owned more than 20000 worth of land If you were part of the excluded groups you would have to swear oath to the Union and then you would be granted Presidential Pardon Answered one of the key questions that needed answers at the end of the war Presidential Reconstruction series of proclamations that made up Johnson s plan for bringing states back Was different for every state but basically 3 parts President would appoint former Unionist as a provisional governor Each state had to write a new Constitution that repudiated succession addressed Confederate debts and abolished slavery Rati cation of the 13th Amendment Once each state accomplished this could then elect own governor and send representatives and senators to Congress The problem was that nothing was said about black citizenship voting right to trial etc just made slavery illegal Also these Southern states also passed Black Codes states laws or sections of new state constitution that placed restrictions on black citizens Restricted voting set curfews no farm landcity lots and they were required to sign annual contracts to white employers They did however allow blacks to testify in court and recognized marriage There purpose was to retain white control over black labor maintain social order and address state of black citizens Contrary to popular belief black codes were not around for a long time their importance was the message it sent Congress refused to seat Southern diplomats meaning Johnson s plan had failed Why did Presidential Reconstruction fail White southern labor needs they needed black labor White southern racism lots of disrespect and theft mostly bc blacks were desperate South s failure to read North s intentionsmixed signals from the North Looked like the South was going to rebuild as it pleased Northemers assumed blacks would just get full citizenship Northern racism and hypocrisy Most northern states did not allow blacks to vote and placed restrictions of them Had racist ideas about black people and didn t think they were capable of full citizenship In response to Johnson s failed plan Congress instilled own form of Reconstruction and elected new president Ulysses S Grant Civil Rights Act of 1866 designed to counteract black codes and give full citizenship to blacks 14th Amendment states couldn t deprive any person of life liberty or property without due process of law Important bc this is the rst time the gov t had interposed bw the states and citizens altering Constitution arrangement rst time the fed gov t told the states what they couldn t do 3 4 5 Formally states decided on who was a citizen Made Civil Rights Act constitutional Reconstruction Acts Put South under military rule States had to hold new constitutional conventions and constitutions had to be approved by Congress Had to ratify 14th Amendment and until they did this they d be under military rule 15th Amendment designed to guarantee voting rights for blacks By 1876 there were only 3 states SC LA and FL that were not under native white control Election of 1876 Samuel Tilden D and Rutherford B Hayes R Popular vote favored Tilden and so did the initial electoral vote Outcome was disputed in SC LA and FL If every vote were disputed Hayes would have won Democrats and Republicans resolved this issue Compromise of 1877 5 parts 3 and 5 were broken All disputed electoral votes went to Hayes Agreed that Democrats get to name a cabinet member Postmaster General bc he appointed thousands of jobs Fed gov t would give economic assistance to the South Fed troops would be withdrawn from the South Reconstruction therefore was over Southern democrats promised to respect black civil rights What was Reconstruction like Southerners were disappointed saw it as a time of northern tyranny Black northemers were more disappointed Afterward black southemers left to nd relatives and reunite w family members but whites wanted them to settle down and work Southern whites were angry for several reasons during Reconstruction Traditional southern leaders weren t allowed to hold of ce Angry about who did hold of ce black of cials carpetbaggers Being under military rule Lost war prejudice against blacks and carpetbaggers could be very corrupt when holding of ce Southerners who were frustrated responded w violence KKK Knights of White etc Intimidate scalawags carpetbaggers and blacks Blacks during Reconstruction a time of hope followed by disappointment did not reach their three goals Freedman s Bureau Redistributed land of southern planters that was con scated during the war rented to blacks w option of purchase however land was eventually given back to original owners Held trials to assure fairness and provided food shelter etc Helped w education for a while but it was eventually up to them to set up own schools most were in pitiful conditions
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