Popular in American History since 1865
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindley on Saturday November 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 1020 at Clemson University taught by Rod Andrew in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see American History since 1865 in History at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/28/15
91 Settling the West 1st half of 19th century Americans had two feelings toward the west Most Americans believed in the concept of Manifest Destiny white Americans had their right and duty to conquer and civilize the entire continent while bringing democracy Christianity and white AngloSaxon culture On the other hand they didn t realize how plentiful the resources and wealth was in the west called it the Great American Desert In 1848 gold was discovered in California changing this view 18601900 several developments led to rapid settlement New agricultural methods Learning to rely on commercial fertilizing and dry farming methods Also barbed wire to keep cattle herds and windmills Mining booms Many gold and silver pockets were discovered Speculator would purchase and hire miners bringing tons of miners creating mining towns Cripple Creek etc Railroad expansion Essential to bringing cattle and crops back east to markets Also it was easy for people to get out there Various federal land laws Homestead Act of 1862 settler could just go out west and claim 160 acres and if you lived there for 5 years the gov t would give it to you A lot of land was bought by railroad companies and real estate speculators who sold it for profit so it didn t really work as it was intended but it did get people out there Before farming took over the cattle industry was prominent 18601880 age of the cowboy Capture herd raise and drive them to towns near railroads to send to meat factories Great economic tool for the west Started w Spanish speaking men not exactly like what they re glori ed w by the entertainment industry A lot of cowboys were actually black and their lives were actually often sickly and they were often poor definitely not as glamorous as we think Obstacles to westward settlement Bison or buffalo Millions were roaming the west which Indians depended on Obstacle for railroad companies so they d pay people to shoot them By 1890 it was nearly extinct Indians 1st half of the 19th century west was seen as best place to send them Attitude changed when whites realized the west s potential Indians in the Great Plains were migratory south to north but mining and railroads ran east to west Solution was to move them onto reservations where they could farm and settle down like white men and if they resisted force through American army was used Several things caused problems bw Americans and Indians White men often disregarded treaties made bw fed gov t and Indians Army and whites often didn t distinguish bw innocent and resisting Indians and Indians often did the same Of course racism and the inquisitive personalities in which the Indians got in the way of Indians won one maj or battle Battle of Little Bighorn George A Custer led troops to drive out Indians from the Blackhills sought by whites because of gold Custer was seen as a hero and it wasn t until later the truth was realized In the end Indians were also wiped out by 3 big factors Disease Extinction of bison especially the plains Indians No choice but the settle down couldn t survive Massacres Sandy Creek Massacre Wounded Knee Some Americans recognized how badly Indians were being treated Helen Hunt Jackson A Century of Dishonor an account of 100 years of hypocrisy and cruelty toward Indians This belief was mostly held out east but the voice of those in west was heard Saw the only way to save them was to settle them on a farm teach them white mans way teach English and teaching them to act as individuals rather than a tribe Resulted in Dawes Act of 1877 Indians would be con ned to reservations There would be an individual landowning system instead of giving to entire troops land was given to individuals Indian Bureau fed gov t would administer the reservations lots of Indians were cheated by dishonest workers of the bureau Alcoholism was still present and education was often subpar It tried to make Indians individualistic and ignored intentions of the tribe and it was in many ways a failure By 1890 there were no Indian resentment and there was no longer a frontier which previously defined America Between 18601890 rapid settlement and economic development occurred late 19th century brought rapid industrialization Several conditions led to the growth of industrialization and big business Abundance of natural resources that were important for industrialization timber oil metals Abundance of capital in the hands of merchants that they could invest in manufacturing Technology America was the Land of Tinkering Abundant and mobile labor force Waves of immigrants immigrant laws were basically unrestricted Climate of opinion in the late 19th century Many believed in economic philosophy of laissezfaire Laissezfaire little to no gov t regulation of business should be free to compete and make money without gov t interference Term coined by Adam Smith who felt government only had to duty to provide protection and roads etc Traditional Republic view Laissezfaire was combined with Social Darwinism People applied Darwin s nding to people experiment was on plants Survival of the fittest Sir Herbert Spencer William Graham Spencer felt some races were superior and eventually the inferior races would die out Felt survival of the fittest applied to economics gov t shouldn t interfere but instead let better businesses thrive and weaker ones die out First big business railroads Railroad companies eventually became so big and important that citizens became worried about their power Businesses farmers etc felt they were at the mercy of the railroads and their rates States attempted to regulate rates interfering w laissezfaire Wabash v Illinois case brought about because the state of Illinois attempted to regulate railroad rates states cant interfere with interstate commerce Interstate Commerce Commission act created ICC to control certain railroad practices considered unfair price gauging etc ICC was not able to accomplish much because Supreme Court overturned many of its decisions especially rates in uenced by the idea of laissezfaire Maj or debate of that time was on one hand you have the idea of laissezfaire but on the other common man felt cheated Building a railroad was a huge process not only railroad but manufacturing too Led to new was of business organization a corporation Allowed people to invest stocks which meant more capital to work with stockholders had limited liability meaning they were only liable for the amount they invested Really aided in the accumulation of capital and ability to invest Pool cartels another business organization protected themselves from competition with one another Informal agreement to split up to stay off one another s turf Courts began to rule against this Viewed as an underhand and a step towards a monopoly Also holding companies allowed companies to own other companies Many Americans were uneasy with the power and growth of big business
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