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Chapters 15 & 16

by: Samantha R

Chapters 15 & 16 PSYC-1000-01

Samantha R
GPA 4.0

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I will upload the rest by Tuesday!
Intro to Psychology
Fabian, Melinda
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha R on Sunday November 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-1000-01 at Tulane University taught by Fabian, Melinda in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 11/29/15
Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Sunday, November 15, 2015 9:57 PM Introduction to Psychological Disorders • Defining Psychological Disorders ○ Psychological Disorder: A syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior.  This disturbances must be maladaptive (interfere with normal day-to-day life) • Understanding Psychological Disorders ○ The Medical Model  Medical Model: The concept that diseases (psychological disorders) have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated,& often cured in a hospital.  Credibility gained from recent discoveries that genetically influenced abnormalities in brain BiopsychosocialApproach structure & biochemistry contribute to many disorders. ○ Biopsychosocial Approach  Disorders reflect genetic predispositions& psychological states, inner psychological dynamics, & social-culturalcircumstances.  Epigenetics: The study of environmental influenceson gene expressions that occur without a DNA change. • Classifying Disorders & Labeling People ○ Classification aims to:  Predict the disorder's future course  Suggest appropriate treatment  Prompt research into its causes ○ DSM-5 is a widely used system (manual) for classifying psychological disorders  This manual undergoes constant changes ○ Labeling allows communication between doctors using a common language ○ Labeling could cause one to act as they have been labeled or trigger assumptions that will change our behavior towards those who are labeled. • Rates of Psychological Disorders ○ 1 in 4 American adults suffer from a diagnosable mental illness ○ The US has the highest rate of psychological disorders ○ Immigrant Paradox: 1st generation immigrants are less likely to experience psychological disorders than the 2nd & 3rd generation. ○ What increases/decreases vulnerability to mental disorders? ○ Over 75% of people with disorders experience symptoms by age 24  Antisocial & phobias (age 8-10)  Alcoholism, OCD, Bipolar, & Schizophrenia (age 20)  Major depression (age 25) Anxiety Disorders, OCD, & PTSD • Anxiety Disorders: Distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety. ○ Generalized Anxiety: One is unexplainably & continually tense & in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.  The anxiety is free-floating (not linked to a specific stressor or threat)  Often accompanied by depressed mood  Could lead to high blood pressure  Fairly rare by age 50 Unit 3 Page 1  The anxiety is free-floating (not linked to a specific stressor or threat)  Often accompanied by depressed mood  Could lead to high blood pressure  Fairly rare by age 50 ○ Panic Disorder: One experiences panic attacks (minutes-long, sudden episodes of intense dread) & fears the unpredictableonset of the next episode.  Panic Attacks often include chest pain, choking, or other frighteningsensations.  Worries about anxiety often amplify anxiety symptoms  Smokers have a doubled risk of panic disorder.  After panic attacks, people may fear & avoid situations where panic attacks have struck (agoraphobia) ○ Phobias: One is intensely & irrationally afraid of a specific object, activity, or situation.  Some phobias have specific triggers (ex. Heights, spiders, etc.)  Not all phobias have specific triggers. □ Social Anxiety Disorder: Intense fear of other people's negative judgements,therefor they avoid potentiallyembarrassing social situations & experience anxiety when they take part in them. • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders (OCD): Occurrence of unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions), actions (compulsions), or both. ○ More common in teens & young adults  1 in 5 completely recover 40 years after (in a study) • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness, &/or insomnia that linger for 4+ weeks after a traumatic experience. ○ Commonality  25% of Iraq & Afghanistan veterans were diagnosed with PTSD  Estimated 2/3 prostitutes experience PTSD  Women are twice as likely to develop PTSD after a traumatic event ○ PTSD patients have smaller amygdala ○ Most do recover • Understanding Anxiety, OCD, & PTSD ○ Conditioning  Through conditioning,a short list of events can create a long list of fears. □ Stimulus generalization occurs when a person experiences a fearful event & later develops a fear of similar events. □ Reinforcement helps maintain them.  58% of social anxiety disorders arise after a traumatic event ○ Cognition  By observation we learn many of our fears.  Past experiences shape our expectations & influence our interpretations& reactions.  Anxiety is especially common when people can't switch off such intrusive thoughts & perceive a loss of control. ○ Biology  Genes □ Genes can influence disorders by regulating neurotransmitters. □ Child abuse leaves long-termepigenetic marks.  The Brain □ Experiences can leave fear circuits within the amygdala □ Higher amygdala activity  Natural Selection □ Phobias focus on dangers faced by ancestors. □ Compulsive acts typically exaggerate survival aiding behaviors (ex. Grooming) Depressive Disorders & Bipolar Disorders • Potential Upsides to Sadness ○ Depression resembles a sort of psychic hibernation  Slows us down, defuses aggression, lets go of unattainable goals, & restrains risk-taking ○ Mild sadness can even improve memory recall • But if taken to an extreme, sadness becomes maladaptive • There are 3 Disorders involving Depression… • Major Depressive Disorder: One experiences 2+ weeks with 5+ symptoms--one of which must include depressed mood or loss of interest/pleasure. ○ Symptoms: 1. Depressed mood most of the time 2. Challenges regulating sleep 3. Challenges regulating appetite & weight 4. Physical agitation or lack of enthusiasm/energy 5. Feeling worthless or guilty (poor self-esteem) 6. Problems thinking, concentrating,or making decisions 7. Dramatically reduced interest/enjoymentin most activities most of the time 8. Thinking repetitively of death or suicide • Dysthymia: Persistent depressive disorder Tends to be milder but often lasts 2+ years Unit 3 Page 2 ○ Tends to be milder but often lasts 2+ years ○ 2+ symptoms present (symptoms 1-6) • Bipolar Disorder: One alternates between depression & mania. (manic-depressive disorder) ○ Mania: A hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.  Dangerously poor judgement is common □ Loud speech, decreased sexual inhibition □ Find advice annoying ○ Seasonal patterns sometimes occur • Understanding Depressive Disorders & Bipolar Disorder ○ Many behavioral & cognitive changes accompany depression  Nearly half the time people exhibit other disorders ○ Depression is widespread  17% of US adults ○ Women are at double the risk ○ Most depressive episodes self-terminate  Therapy can help speed recovery ○ Stressful events often precede depression ○ With each new generation, depression strikes earlier & affects more people.  Now often hits late teens □ 90% Hide it from their parents  May reflect increased amount of people coming forward about their depression ○ Biological Perspective  Genetic Influences □ Strong correlation between twins □ Depressed gene regions have been discovered  The Depressed Brain □ Brain activity is slowed in a depressed state □ Smaller frontallobes □ Norepinephrine is scarce during depression & excessive during mania □ Serotonin is scarce ○ The Social-Cognitive Perspective  Explores how people's expectations & assumptions influencewhat they perceive  Negative Thoughts & Negative Moods Interact □ Self-defeatingbeliefs & negative explanatory style feed depression's vicious cycle  Often explain bad events in stable (constant) & internal (self-blame) ways. □ State Dependent Memory: Recalling experiences consistent with one's mood □ Learned helplessness may arise □ Rumination: Compulsive fretting (overthinking about problems)  Depression's Vicious Cycle □ Depression both causes & results from stressful experiences ○ Suicide & Self-Injury  Suicide □ Statistics  US, Canada, & Australia double Britain, Italy, & Spain's suicide rate.  Women are more likely to attemptsuicide  Men are 2-4x more likely to succeed when attempting suicide  Suicide rates increase @ late adulthood(peak @ middle age)  25% of suicides occur on Wednesday (in US)  Suicide rates are higher among… ◊ Whites & Native-Americans (2x in the US) ◊ Rich ◊ Nonreligious ◊ Non-married  9% of people have contemplatedsuicide ◊ 3/10 actually attempt  25% of those succeed – 1/3 of these have tried before Self-Injury Rates □ Social suggestion may trigger suicide  Rates increase after it appears on a highly viewed TV show Unit 3 Page 3 ◊ 3/10 actually attempt  25% of those succeed – 1/3 of these have tried before Self-Injury Rates □ Social suggestion may trigger suicide  Rates increase after it appears on a highly viewed TV show  Experiencing suicide in your family increases your risk 8x  Self-Injury □ Tend to be less tolerant of emotionaldistress. □ Typically self-critical □ Typically have poor communication skills Schizophrenia • Schizophrenia: Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, &/or diminished, inappropriate emotional expression. • Symptoms: ○ Positive vs Negative Symptoms  Patients with positive symptoms may experience hallucinations,disorganized & deluded speech, & inappropriatelaughter, tears, or rage.  Patientswith negative symptoms may have toneless voices, expressionless faces, or mute & rigid bodies. ○ Disturbed Perceptions  Hallucinations are common (sound, smell, visual, touch, taste) □ Most commonly sounds (voices) ○ Disorganized Thinking & Speech  Delusions: A false belief, often of persecution or seemingly great importance.  Paranoid tendencies (think they're being threatenedor pursued)  Breakdown of selective attention (cannot filter out sensory stimuli) ○ Diminished & Inappropriate Emotions  Expressed emotions are often inappropriate& split off from reality.  Some lapse into an emotionless flat affect: state of no apparent feeling.  Most have an impaired theory of mind: difficulty perceiving facial emotions & reading others' states of mind  Motor Behavior □ Some perform senseless, compulsive acts. (Ex: continually rubbing an arm) □ Others have the condition catatonia: motionless for hours & then become agitated  Sleep problems are common *With a supportive environment & medication 40% of patients will have periods of 1+ years of normal life experience (Others remain socially withdrawn & rejected into isolation for much of their lives) • Onset & Developmentof Schizophrenia ○ Statistics  Nearly 1/100 people will experience schizophrenia this year.  Typically strikes between ages of 16-30 □ Average is 18 for men & 25 for women  Men tend to experience it earlier & more severely  Child abuse victims are 3x more likely to develop schizophrenia ○ Chronic Schizophrenia: Symptoms usually appear by late adolescence/early adulthood.As people age, psychotic episodes last longer & recovery periods are shorter.  Often exhibit constant negative symptoms of social withdrawal.  Symptoms worsen over time ○ Acute Schizophrenia: Can begin @ an age; frequentlyoccurs in response to an emotionally traumatic event; has extended recovery periods. (AKA: reactive schizophrenia)  More often exhibits positive symptoms  More responsive to drug therapy • Understanding Schizophrenia ○ Schizophrenia is linked to abnormal brain tissue & genetic predispositions. ○ Brain Abnormalities  Dopamine Overactivity  Positive symptoms  Medication blocks dopamine receptors→lessen symptoms  Abnormal Brain Activity & Anatomy □ Low Frontal Lobe activity  Out-of-sync neurons disrupt integrated functioning □ High Thalamus activity  Hallucinations □ Small Thalamus  Inability to filter sensory stimuli (inattention) □ High Amygdala activity  Paranoia □ Enlarged Fluid Areas & corresponding Shrinkage/Thinning of Cerebral Tissue  Thought Disorganization ◊ More shrinkage & fluid area→More severe □ Small Cortex & Corpus Callosum (connects 2 brain hemispheres)  Prenatal Environment & Risk Unit 3 Page 4 □ Enlarged Fluid Areas & corresponding Shrinkage/Thinningof Cerebral Tissue  Thought Disorganization ◊ More shrinkage & fluid area→More severe □ Small Cortex & Corpus Callosum (connects 2 brain hemispheres)  Prenatal Environment & Risk □ Fetal-virus infections contribute to the development of schizophrenia ○ Genetic Factors (YES)  1/10 patients have a sibling/parent with schizophrenia  If your identical twin has schizophrenia you have a 50% chance of getting it ○ Environmental Triggers  There are no environmental triggers that are strong enough to be a sole cause schizophrenia development Dissociative, Personality, & Eating Disorders • Dissociative Disorders: Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, & feelings. ○ Very rare & controversial  **Dissociation itself is not rare (many feel a sense of being unreal or separated from one's body) ○ Fugue State: Sudden loss of memory or change in identity  Often a response to an overwhelmingly stressful situation ○ Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): Patient exhibits 2+ distinct & alternating personalities.  Understanding DID □ Evidence of differing body & brain states  Handedness sometimes changes  Shifts in visual acuity & eye-muscle balance have been recorded as patients switch personalities □ Brain Abnormalities  Shrinkage in brain areas dedicated to memory & threat detection  Heightened activity in brain areas associated with control & inhibition of traumatic memories □ DID is coping/defensive response to anxiety • Personality Disorders: Inflexible & enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning. ○ 3 General Characteristic Categories  Anxiety  Eccentric/Odd Behaviors  Dramatic/Impulsive Behaviors ○ Antisocial Personality Disorder: Patient exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing (even toward friends/family); may be aggressive & ruthless or a clever con artist  Psychopaths & Sociopaths  Low emotional intelligence  Often evident by age 15 (1/2 of these children will continue this disorder into adulthood)  Impulsive behaviors typically with little/no remorse  UnderstandingAntisocial Personality Disorder □ Less frontallobe tissue □ Low autonomic nervous system arousal □ Low stress hormone levels □ Genetics create a vulnerabilityto the disorder □ Child abuse & poverty increases risk • Eating Disorders ○ Anorexia Nervosa: Patient maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly underweight.  Sometimes accompanied by excessive exercise  Most common in females (9/10) & adolescents  50% display a binge-purge-depressioncycle ○ Bulimia Nervosa: Patient alternates between binge eating with purging or fasting.  Most common in females & late teens/early 20s  Unlike anorexia, bulimia is marked by weight fluctuation within or above normal ranges (harder to identify) ○ Binge-Eating Disorder: Patient exhibits significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt  No purging or fasting  Typically leads to being overweight Unit 3 Page 5


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