Week 9-14 (23 Oct.-20 Nov. 2015) Anti-War Movements, Music and the War, Who Served?, The Enemy, Nixon and Vietnam, Kent State, Cambodia/Laos, A Better War, International Context, The Paris Agreement, and The Fall of Saigon
Week 9-14 (23 Oct.-20 Nov. 2015) Anti-War Movements, Music and the War, Who Served?, The Enemy, Nixon and Vietnam, Kent State, Cambodia/Laos, A Better War, International Context, The Paris Agreement, and The Fall of Saigon HIST 3370
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chris Hicks on Sunday November 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3370 at Bowling Green State University taught by Benjamin Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see The Vietnam War in History at Bowling Green State University.
Reviews for Week 9-14 (23 Oct.-20 Nov. 2015) Anti-War Movements, Music and the War, Who Served?, The Enemy, Nixon and Vietnam, Kent State, Cambodia/Laos, A Better War, International Context, The Paris Agreement, and The Fall of Saigon
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Date Created: 11/29/15
Week 914 23 Oct20 Nov 2015 AntiWar Movements Music and the War Who Served The Enemy Nixon and Vietnam Kent State CambodiaLaos A Better War International Context The Paris Agreement and The Fall of Saigg Context of the 1960s Did the opposition of the war create the radicalism Q Did this counterculture use the war to promote their culture M Clergy student teachins hawks say LBJ isn t in the war to win blacks Catholics anti war says war is immoral prowar say Communists are atheists Congressman mention that war was never declared American religion used to contrast Godless Communism M 1 pacifistsagainst violence religious groups Buddhists Quakers Mennonites 2 radicals New Left corporations and political parties eroding participatory democracy corrupt American system 3 liberals protesting war but not US society 1 want Geneva Accords to come through illegal war violating UN standards Tonkin Gulf Resolution didn t give LBJ right to fullscale war 2 morals immoral killing civilians etc 3 it s a civil war outside our ability to in uence not national security interest validity of Domino Theory diverting our resources and distracting from our fight against poverty TLtics legislation congressional hearings local movements prevent military training Students about 10 of campuses had violent demonstrations destruction of physical property and about 10 of students actively involved in antiwar movements Origins civil rights movement 1964 Civil Rights Act Baby Boomers number of students skyrockets students outnumbered farmers Cold War Govemment researchgrants to colleges too conformistcorporateantipoverty Students for Democratic Societv anticorporate structure of US Ann Arbor and Berkeley U of M lSt teachin before ground troops land Alice Herz 82 year old Quaker selfimmolates 7 American total lSt march on DC in March 1965 October 1967 100000 besieged Pentagon antiwar did more to promote conservativesright less effective in fostering liberals l967 was Campaign of Optimism M convince men to resist draft ROTC Run Off To Canada use sexgtdivisive because of objectification of women or more political involvement felt they needed to be hawks to gain credibility women active in Civil Rightsantiwar movements didn t help them helped give rise to feminist movement Women Strike for Peace WSP before war ban nuclear testing BlackAmericansMLK and LBJ politician getting pushed a little support civil rights but also war disproportionally killing blacks diverting resources from Great Society not helping poverty Beyond Vietnam 4 April 1967 problems at home needed dealt with George Ball remembered unpopularity of stalemate in Korea Leading figures in US sports against war Ali Jim Brown Kareem Abdul J abar 1968 4 April MLK dead in Memphis 5 June Robert Kennedy dead in Los Angeles Colombia Universitv occupied because of discrimination etc Democratssupport war or support LBJ Battle of Chicago Police Riot backlash against protestors as being too violent Mslowly withdraw ground troops but expand air war and into Laos and Cambodia Invasion of Cambodiagtburn KSU ROTCgtNG kills students 4 May 1970 M heartland remained conservative increase in veterans opposing the war K wshowing ag in backyard of enemy mission had no point no territorial gain or securing of strategic objectives public demonstration of our presence no one listened to vets Did Antiwar movement help end war or prolong it Music and the War Music of the Vietnam Era New LeftSDStopical songaddresses politicalsocial issues Counterculture often defined by their music rockpopular music intersection with civil rights movement soulpopular music prowar songs The Silent Generation bom between 1925 and 1942gt generation after Greatest Generation but before Baby Boomers Children of Crisis born in aftermath of Great Depression saw progress American Dream at work progress made them have a very strong faith in government and obedient because of free will and Red Scare Red Scare paranoid about Communism The Old Left The Almanac Singers prounion Roll the Union On sympathetic to Communism helped workersgt way to organize strengthen improve workers lives helped connect US politics and culturemusic Folkniks 30s 40s authenticity and anonymity What Did You Learn in School Today musical critique of the Silent Generation Pete Seeger often used music to critique things use of irony and satire connected with absurdity those 2 grow when musicians felt absurdity grew to critique the Silent Generation absurdity coming out of contradictions Seeger called before HUAC New Left Folksong Revival Movements 1960s selfexpression and individualism Joan Baez Bob Dylan Blowing in the Wind 1963 civil rights or Vietnamese being free I Ain t Marching Anymore 1965 Phil Ochs extremely specific topical songs burning of draft cards sentiment captured here it s the old leading and young falling parents are sending them to war generational divide Countercultureyouth fed up with Silent Generation alternative point of view via psychedelic drugs musica1 stylesgta1ternative life psychedelic rock folk Blues Jefferson Airplanes White Rabbit gtreferencing Alice in Wonderland Defying authority Woodstock Music and Art Fair 1517 August 1969 defined generation rejection of Silent Generation Country Joe and the Fish IfeellikeI mfixintoDieRag Jimi Hendrix StarSpangled Banner sounds of war explosions and TAPS Mainstream Popular Music balance between politics and accessibility Motown ciVil rights and war Marvin Gaye and War Edwin Starr KSU 4 May 1970 Ohio Crosby Stills Nash and Young mainstream necks out Prog zW dutypatriotism Antiprotestorcounterculturedraftdodgers The Ballad of the Green Berets and Pat Boone getting pissed in Wish You Were Here Buddy Music and Vietnam patriotic songs assessing in uence of music on public opinion Composition of Armed Forces DraftRich Man s War Poor Man s Fight Draft Evasion college medical condition and political connection GuardReserves Conscript force in crisis drug abuse racism combat refusal fragging atrocities Music prowarpatriotic were largely countryWestem 80gt600 Country stations in 1960s music sales tripled 70 of most in uential rock n roll albums released during Vietnam Some Argued Music was In uential doves message helped in ending war hawks driVing young to SatanCommunism other said it was more about sound and not message Eve of Destruction banned on many stations most popular song was The Ballad of the Green Berets honor pride esprit de corps etc Merle Haggard Okie from Muskogee critique of counterculture don t need drugs student protests are disrespectful Who Served Composition of Armed Forces evasion nding defermentwaiver so one doesn t have to serve vs resistance 40 of draft age males in military during Vietnam 10 IN Vietnam 2 COMBAT IN Vietnam and 57 got defermentsexemptions 2 resisted WWII avg age 26 12 million served Vietnam avg age 1920 87 million in armed forces Those who served 55 working class 20 poor 25 middle class Draft Reforms1970 lottery based on birthday local draft boards determined what jobs were important etc had quota In Crisis largely conscriptmore drugs racism fragging typically a threat to NCOsofficers that get enlisted killed because of incompetence or zeal Combatrefusa1 not going out in order to survive Drugs available probably in armed forces in Europe and US too 80 who started in Vietnam quit once home minorities and working class disproportionally served 1966 6 had college 1970 10 higher college service started when forces drew down drugs and racial divisions 5 Os and 605 better chance for a military career for black Americans M credit belongs to both whites and blacks not much differences between the races We don t feel that way in the service 1967 surprised military wasn t re ective of society s racial divide common enemy in combat M 1971 away from playing they re racially segregated don t understand each other resorting back to what they did at home because they have security duty and don t see their common threat The Enemy Who s primary Enemy southern insurgency N LF all southerners disliking Saigon government and VC vs Northern invasion PAVN People s Army of Vietnam North Vietnam focused on DMZ to Central Highlands and building own society internal divisions too much support of South could cause US invasion and continue Northern bombings Ho Chi Minh cared more about building North than fighting in the South My politics combined with military strategy turn villages against government Southern urban elites vs Northern rural cadre presented land reform and future and portrayed US as France s successors war as Liberation of Vietnam Hanoi China and USSRrivalry border wars wanted to prevent PRC from getting nuclear weapons Vietnam didn t want to look like it s favoring one over the other ri esetc from PRC and more advanced technology from USSR RPGs antiair defense etc Local Forces vital for intelligence and politicsgtintimidate collaborators mine layersbooby traps snipers in ict casualties and buy time StrengthsWeaknesses hard to distinguish between loyaldisloyal combatantcivilian experience of fighting insurgency not many logistical needs only to certain extent issue with stockpilinggt in uences tacticsgtneed more fire discipline medical carefoodhygiene comfortable with terrain and climate mobilize all of society war was important to them cause and morale maintain tactical initiative TLticstunnels knew when US was attackingwithdrawing predictable physical size was too big for tunnels care for wounded and dead Nixon and Vietnam Eisenhower in 1952Korea was unpopular victor of WWII I will go to Korea VP was Nixon ambiguous Nixon often acted in secrecy Kissinger National Security Advisorgtpersonal advisor to POTUS suspicious of bureaucracy and antiwar movement surveillance of them Elected in 1968 Tet MLK and Robert Kennedy assassinations riots Chicago Democratic National Convention November election Peace with Honor campaign Order silent majoritygtto support wargovemmentetc lSt Civil Rightgtappealing to Southern RepublicansWhites by saying civil rights movement s gone too far associates counterculture with SocialismCommunism I pledge to you we shall have an honorable end to Vietnam said US military power was ineffectively ambiguous message Humphreyeffectively will war end as VPgtUS supplanted French not totally JFK and LBJ s fault 1969Ho Chi Minh dies Nixon antiwar people are helping Communists Approaches detente with USSRPRC providing North Vietnam with supplies strong anticommunist so no one says he s soft on Communism getting out of war if they reduce help to Vietnam Vietnamization 19691975 Americanization 19651968550000 troops reduce troop number train ARVN to carry bulk of fighting 550000gt98000 in a couple years less draftsdeathsprotests Expand war into CambodiaLaos and by lifting restrictions on bombingmining Hai Phong Harborgt can do because of detente better war after 1969 Madman Theory do anything to stop war invade Cambodia AprilMay 1970 to hinder supplies Kent State M Vietnamization Nixon s Appeal to the Silent Majority Cambodia Nixon s criticism of Burns protesting the war Kent State May 1970 May 1 Clashes Downtown May 2 ROTC Building in ames May 3 Curfew and confrontation with the National Guard May 4 shootings Epilogue Jackson State May 14 1970 The Reaction public opinion The Battle of Wall Street hippies vs hard hats origin of the conservative backlash and the Reagan Revolution Ohio Crosby Stills Nash and Young 1970 denounced as unAmerican The Investigation The Scranton Commission Reaction at BGSU and other campuses The Memorial Reconciling 2 views of the shootings m invasion of Cambodia sparked debates many colleges closed public opinion 11 sided with students and 58 side with National Guard November 1969 appeal to Silent Majority Trust Me Nixongt I ll bring war to honorable peace incursion into Cambodia bolster Cambodian regime and find stockpiled supplies on border negotiate with North Vietnam from position of strength privileged sanctuary 30 April 1970 such an issue because Nixon said he d end war but he s escalating it by going into another country Friday 1 May 1970 Vandalism in downtown Kent tire set on fire break windows and bottles thrown Nixon denounces Bums on Campus Saturday 2 May 1970 ROTC building burned down attacked firemen who left after fire appears to subside but it becomes roaring fire somehow Sunday 3 May 1970 protest NG presence on campus and curfew campus now being invaded sit down strike in road issue isn t really Cambodia anymore but occupation of campus Monday 4 May 1970 many students gathering many just watching tear gas used 13 secondsgt 4 killed 2 weren t even in protests Nixon talks to DC protestors 9 May 1970 Jackson State 14 May 1970 2 killed state troopers fired on dorms during protest less known racism burn out President s Commission on Campus Unrest Scranton Commission shootings unnecessary and unwarranted but those destroying town and being violent share responsibility Nixon s Strategies for Honorable Peace Expand War Kent State protests reaction to invasion of CambodiagteXpand war to give South Vietnam better chance to survive ARVN invades Laos restrictions on bombingmining lifted Better War COIN and not Search and Destroy M with USSR and open relations with PRC Expanding the War Cambodia and Laos Way to have honorable peace Expand the war Laos South Vietnam with US air power Cambodia US and South Vietnam LBJ afraid invasions would in ate war Geneva Accords say Cambodia and Laos are neutral US secretly involved in both m government not as aggressive but Hmong fight with US against Pathet Lao Cambodia Sihanouk wants to be neutral like many newly independent nations in Cold War but didn t like North Vietnam using the country hot pursuit enemy can be pursued into Cambodia to a certain point bombing campaign attempting to destroy supply lines coup March 1970 Lon Nol overthrows Prince Sihanouk Incursion 1970 Madman theory escalating so North Vietnam makes peace AprilJune capture COSVN Central office of South Vietnam North Vietnam HQ in South multiple areas Parrot s beak and fish hook opposition in US government Impact enemy retreated deeper into Cambodia spreads Communist authority in Cambodia test of ARVN relied on US heavily still found major amount of supplies didn t in uence North Vietnam to surrender counterproductive North Vietnam ended talks hoped to buy time for South Vietnam but lost time in DC repeal Gulf of Tonkin Resolution A Better War US Ground Operations 19691973 NeW Commander Gen Creighton Abe Abrams Operational changes in US ground war One War 1 shift to COIN from Search and Destroy to clear and hold continuing or change in US way of war Storley vs Gentile retum to large unit operations Cambodia 1970 and Laos 1971 2 Accelerated pacification campaign APC Phoenix Program ethics and effectiveness 3 Vietnamization Accelerated training and ARVN equipping effectiveness of Vietnamization Spring Offensive 1972 Lost Victory Was war won by 1970 Cambodia contradicted Nixon s campaign promises bought time in Saigon but lost time in DC Imperial Presidency Congress pushes backgt repeal Gulf of Tonkin Resolution and no troops on ground in Cambodia CooperChurch Amendment CIA spies on US citizens Connection because antiwar protestors and Communists Creighton Abe Abrams known for being in lead in WWII in Patton s armored diVision West Point graduate PROVN foreshadowed nature of war in Vietnam Different from Westmoreland Harvard spit and polished political Abrams rougher drinker soldier s soldier focus on one war equal priority to 3 things 1 clearing and holding areassmaller units night operations pull enemy from Villagers Hamburger Hill left after battle combat refusals came about 2 Pacification and the Phoenix Program Targeted assassination or effective COIN Thieu land reform new rice land to peasants officials in Villages are locals Phoenix Program CIA looks for local insurgents Video round up suspects kept alive so they could be interrogated used girls to infiltrate Communists those said to be assassinated were killed in battles 3 Vietnamization train ARVN to take over fight can they defend themselves when US leaves Spring Offensive 1972 almost conventionalgt tanks defend selves and prevail with US air power enemy changing strategy or defeated Pentagon Papers leadership deceiving the people weren t optimistic about victory in 1965 1968 War s International Context M ground war supported Korea more than Vietnam more supportive of Viet Minh against the French than the USSR technology to fight US air power and advanced weaponry China vs USSR competition for who s the face on national liberation wars 19th century Czarist Russia had imperial designs on China 1969 border war between China and USSR 1St use of new T62 tanks Soviet soldiers killed different view of monolithic Communism tensions and historical animosities USSR has to send weapons to North Vietnam through China high technology stuff through North Vietnam ports though 320000 PRC served in North Vietnam overtime there in various capacities peak170000 Antiaircraft engineers laborers 10000 dead more support than USSR but quality vs quantity Why support North Vietnam 1 security US at China s border isn t good PRC maintained high profile in Vietnam so US take them seriously tensions between North Vietnam and PRC over low vs high profile 2 support wars of national liberation support guerillas instead of nuclear deterrents USSR Nixon to PRC big debate is on negotiations about Thieu North Vietnam wants him gone Zhou Enlai Le Duc Tho PRC puts pressure on North Vietnam Moscow Summit nationalist interests cared more about improving US relations than supporting North Vietnam US and the World Pay for war pay taxes reduce social programs deficit spending economy crushed by war on decline in the world Became equal to USSR in terms of nuclear weapons weakened because of bad view of military reduce nuclear arsenal to help in spending Destroys US economy strategic security moral authority s eroding atrocities bomb civilians no elections in 1956 mm war in Vietnam was because of supporting France most Europeans oppose Vietnam War protests France kicks out NATO HQ UK oppose US in Vietnam counterculture intersects with war Celebrities protests in Berlin as well The Paris Agreement Battles Bullying and Bombing Christmas Bombing Battles Easter Offensive by North Vietnamgtconventional attack into South Vietnam with Soviet tanks and controlled a northern South Vietnamese province defeated only because of US air power launched after Nixon goes to PRC Bullying PRC and USSR bullying North Vietnam and US bullying South Vietnam into accepting peace Bombing Linebacker 11 largest bombing of the war Kissinger doesn t consult with South Vietnam on peace negotiations agreed to withdraw US troops but North Vietnamese troops can stay but promise air support leads to Christmas bombings Christmas Bombings large scale destroy ciVilian centers largest hospital in Hanoi bombed North into accepting our concessions Truman s Death created containment gave French support early Cold War over LBJ death Vietnam ruined his legacy Nixon declares Vietnam over 1 day later North VietnamViet CongNational Liberation Front watch troops leave Vietnam Nixon s conditions for peace with honorPOWs returned in 60 days continued support for South Vietnam Erosion of Cold War Consensus secrets were important not really like today Honorable stabbed in the back South Vietnam Decent Interval South Vietnam would fall but can buy time so it doesn t look like US loss Paris Agreement on Ending the warrestoring peace US agreed North Vietnam could stay in South Vietnam Terms of Paris Agreement US halt airnaval actions against North Vietnam US dismantle mines in North Vietnamese waters within 60 days all US forces withdrawn and POWs returned US can t reintroduce new war materialssupplies US dismantle all military bases in South Vietnam both Vietnams can keep troops but can t introduce new troopsmaterials from North Vietnam or anywhere else but can replace arms munitions on 11 basis under international control Could peace have happened in 1969 20000 US between 1968 and 1973 letting South Vietnam staying in place was an issue for North Vietnam in 1969 change in North Vietnam s mind US concessions PRCUSSR pressure Nixon s escalation Truman show resolve and not negotiate with Communistsgt causes fighting in Vietnam endnegotiate with Communists to end fighting in Vietnam Fall of Saigon M Nixon promised Thieu US air power Watergate was priority spying on Antiwar secrecy was essential quit making heroes out of secret leakers South Vietnam confident in US suppliesgt launch offensive and lose 30000 in 1974 spying on antiwarabuse of power Under in uence of North Vietnam or Communists people less trusting of POTUS and government discontinued bombing and support of South Vietnam while they re suffering their economy tanks North Vietnam with Nixon gone don t think US will support South Vietnam so they plan for offensivegt final offensive MarchApril 1975 Key Battle Ban me Thuot not Pleiku the New Government Defense Line Xuang Loc Saigon retreat to New Gov Line refugees come in waves because of panic M no more fixed wing aircraft because airfield in range of artillery total changes looting at risk Vietnamese mortally scared cut and run when things got hard desperation betrayal reunitedlosing family North Vietnam effective political mobilization and support from people 2 million refugees left VietnamLaosCambodia PostWar Communists take over Laos because US can t support anymore The Killing Fields 19751979 13 million in Cambodia executed out of 8 million Cambodia still bombed after Paris Relations with South Vietnam bitterness after war Vietnam wanted war reparations and US wanted POWsMIAs accounted for veto power so Vietnam doesn t get international seats 1978 Vietnam invades Cambodia until 1989 ChinaVietnam Border War February 1979 20000 Chinese 10000 Vietnamese die 1989after Cold War ends better terms with Vietnam POWs visit McCain l993gt 1St ambassador to Vietnam since war was former POWgt take advantage of Vietnam economygt Nike Factory Ho Chi Minh City