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Week 13 and 14 notes

by: Trevor Meed

Week 13 and 14 notes PHIL 194

Trevor Meed
GPA 3.86
Critical Reasoning
Swank, Casey

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Critical Reasoning
Swank, Casey
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Trevor Meed on Sunday November 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 194 at St. Cloud State University taught by Swank, Casey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Critical Reasoning in PHIL-Philosophy at St. Cloud State University.


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Date Created: 11/29/15
Week 13 and 14 Multicultural Philosophy notes Introduction to epistemology 1 rationalism Rene Descartes reason thinking is only source of genuine knowledge independent of sense 2 Empiricism David Hume experience senses is only source of genuine knowledge after sense 3 Problem of skepticism nothing is certain Descartes Mediations 1 and 2 1 Mediation 1 A the Cartesian project everything should be doubted until proven with claims B skeptical argument 1 Senses deceive us dreams can deceive us nothing is certain 2 Mediation 2 part one A the cogito argument I think I exist can deceived its real B rationalism knowledge obtained priori before experience independent of it all 3 Meditation 2 part two A The nature of the mind I is the thinking thing a mind that thinks a thing that thinks B solipsism and the problem of other minds solipsism is view that only my mind is real nothing else Problem of other minds is that only our mind can be proven so how prove others are real 4 Meditation 2 part 3 A why minds are better known than bodies to know the essence of something is to be able to think and define its essence and to do that needs the act of thinking and the mind is the act of thinking so we know the mind which is thinking more than anything else B the wax argument things can change shape and appear different to our senses but the essence stays the same hence our senses do not perceive essence Hume an enquiry concerning human understanding 1 the perceptions of the mind A thoughts or ideas less forceful and intense imagination and memories B Impressions more forceful and intense sensations perceptions emotions 2 relationship between thoughts and impressions A thought analysis ideas are taken from our past experiences and impressions B thought absence if something has never been experienced it can not be thought of 3 the objects of human reason Relations of ideas necessarily true ideas like 3 times 5 are 15 To deny them is a direct contradiction B matters of fact not necessarily true ideas are contingently true ideas propositions about the world To deny this will not have any contradiction C is it a relation of ideas or a matter of fact We arrive at conclusions we do not see through cause and effect 4 What is the nature of the reasoning concerning all matters of fact A facts that we do not see are derived through cause and effect from past experiences B cause and effect claims on facts through understanding on things we cannot see 5 how do we come to understand causation A experience we see smoke associated with fire B empiricism knowledge comes after experience posteriori 6 what is the basis of all conclusions from experience A habit not reason we base things on what we know from before and not logic of what will happen in the future B problem of induction conclusions based on experience have no rational foundation inferences make assumptions of the past being the same as the future Intro to Philosophy of Religion 2 different approaches to study religion 1 Theology from Greek word theos God logos study or inquiry of theology is the interpretation and clarification of religious doctrine and experience which assumes to be factual true or genuine Theologians work inside faith to better understand it 2 Philosophy a critical evaluation of religious doctrine practice and experience question if fact true or genuine from philosophy perspective Not necessarily believers work outside the faith to better understand it Two main issues inside the Phil Religon l arguments for the existence of God are 4 types 1 Cosmo logical arguments empirical aposteri based on experience and senses our experience of the world indicates that God is the creator or ultimate explanation for the world 2 Ontological arguments rational apriori based on pure reason no sense experience definition of the essence of God sort of being God is requires his experience 3 Teleo logical arguments empirical aposteriori design arguments order and purpose in the world shows that needed to be a producer 4 Moral arguments empirical posteriori appeals to moral experience sense of duty and requirements must be explained by the reality of God 2 the problem of evil two aspects of the problem 1 the generalnontheological why is evil real Why good happen to bad Why does bad happen to god people 2 the specifics theological problem how can the existence of evil be reconciled with a God who is perfectly good and loving and who can do anything God is perfect good and loving so he wants to stop evil God can do anything must be able to prevent evil Evil exists Either god is not perfect or is not all powerful By reasoning of a nonbelieving philosopher Week 13 and 14 study group notes Chapter 14 Categorical Syllogisms Deductive argument with 2 premise Have to be categorical Each term should show up twice Major term is predict of the conclusion Middle term the term that happens only in premise Minor term is the subject of the conclusion mood and figure 4 types of category A E O the figure 1234 The figure is determined by where M is located 1 2 3 M M M M M M the mood is just a list of what categorys are used in the sentence All S are M All M are p All S are P Mood AAA Figure 4 AAA4


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