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Week 12 Lecture Notes Bios 209

by: Nicholas Petrusevski

Week 12 Lecture Notes Bios 209 Bio209WeekOneNotes

Nicholas Petrusevski
GPA 3.5

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Here are the week 12 notes, a study guide will also be out soon!
Funds of Organismal Biology
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Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicholas Petrusevski on Sunday November 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio209WeekOneNotes at Northern Illinois University taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Funds of Organismal Biology in Liberal Arts at Northern Illinois University.

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Date Created: 11/29/15
Saturday, November 28, 2015 Week 12 Notes -Ecosystems: = community and abiotic 1. Transfer of energy and materials through trophic levels -energy flows (not cycles) through ecosystems -Energy flow: follows 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics: -energy can’t be created or destroyed -BUT can change form e.g., light E to chemical bond E to heat E -any transfer of energy are not 100 % efficient -Primary Producers: sun’s light energy stored in chemical bonds by primary producers *primary producers are autotrophs -(secondary producers) *the amount of energy in this chemical form that is available to consumers is NET PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY ^ expressed per area per time *primary production is LOW in oceans and HIGH in tropical forests 2. Water, Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles 1 Saturday, November 28, 2015 -Biogeochemical cycles: movement of chemicals through ecosystems (including through organisms) *organisms assimilate (take in) chemical elements -Transpiration: water loss from plants REMEMBER: -99 % of earth’s water is IN THE GROUND -lots of earth’s carbon is stored in fossil fuels, as a side note CO2 is released when humans burn them for energy -Nitrogen Cycle: air nitrogen (N2) not available to organisms except after fixed by certain bacteria -N in all organisms’nucleic acids and proteins -nitrogen cycle is affected by human activities like industrial fixation to make fertilizer REMEMBER: -Hubbard Brook New Hampshire 3. Human impacts that are good -Bioremediation: using plants, bacteria, or other organisms to clean up polluted ecosystems -organisms may break down pollutants on their own -or concentrate them (e.g. in leaves and stems) so they can be easily harvested and disposed of safely -Restoration Ecology: 2 Saturday, November 28, 2015 re-establishing ecosystems that have been lost or heavily degraded e.g., poorly-managed farm - diverse tall grass prairie e.g., management or removal of livestock to avoid overgrazing -Combining bioremediation and restoration: constructing wet lands that also function in sewage treatment -use biotic and abiotic components of biogeochemical cycles -inexpensively treat sewage -provide habitat for wildlife 3


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